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The National Federation of the Blind is not an organization 
speaking for the blind-it is the blind speaking for themselves. 

Printed at 
2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California 94708 

APRIL 1970 


Published monthly in braille and distributed free to the blind by the National Federation of 
the Blind. President: Kenneth Jemigan, 524 Fourth Street, Des Moines, Iowa, 50309. 

Inkprint edition produced and distributed by the National Federation of the Blind. 

EDITOR: Perry Sundquist, 4651 Mead Avenue, Sacramento, California, 95822. Associate 
Editor: Hazel tenBroek, 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708. 

News items should be sent to the Editor. 

Address changes should be sent to 2652 Shasta Road, Berkeley, California, 94708. 

If you or a friend wish to remember the National Federation of the Blind in your will, you 
can do so by employing the following language: 

"I give, devise, and bequeath unto NATIONAL FEDhKA IION OI' THE BLIND, a 

District of Columbia non-profit corporation, the sum o\ % (or, " percent of 

my net estate", or "the loliowing stocks and bonds: ") to be u.sed for its worthy 

purposes on behalf of blind persons and to be held and administered by direction of its 
Executive Committee." 

If your wishes are more complex, you may have your attorney conmumicate with the 
Berkeley Otfice for other suggested forms. 

APRIL 1970 




by Ed Sheppard 550 






by J. Campbell Bruce 571 


by Keith Takaliashi , 573 


by Sally Hammond 574 



by Alco Canfield 583 




by W. A, Reed, Jr. , . 587 



by Jack Sirard 589 


by Dave Hough . 591 


b>' Arthur R. Vinsel 593 


by Donald C. Capps 594 





The time has come for all good Federationists to begin looking for their suitcases. Our 
Minnesota Affihates-the Minnesota Organization of the BUnd and tlie United Blind of 
Minnesota-are hard at work. 

The Chairman of Convention Arrangements (who is also our able President) has done 
his usual unusual job with hotel prices. Singles are $7.50, doubles $ 10, and twins $11, and 
the Hotel Leamington has 500 rooms. [Don't complain about those prices. Those of you 
who attend professional and fraternal conventions and conferences know that $15 for a 
single is considered a good price these days and banquet tickets at $12 are not uncommon.] 
The room reservations have been coming in eaily. Have you got yours? The owner of the 
Washington, D. C. Senators basebdl team also owns the host iioiel. 

Our Minnesota people report that prizes are being gathered. Has your affiliate made 
plans for its contribution? Remember, gifts should be something to cherisli and liie 
suggested bottom pnce is $25. Send your prize gifts to the chairman of the prize committee, 
Mrs. Bertlia Bernsdorf, 3549 Kyle Avenue North, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55422 

The most important event of the Convention, our annual banquet, is scheduled for 
Sunday evening, July 5. Everyone should be comfortable in a hall able to accommodate 
1200 diners at round tables Tickets are going at $5.75. 

A marathon Coffee Klatsch will be featured in the Minnesota Headquarters suite and a 
late evening night club style setup is planned. Convention goers are being offered a choice of 
two attractions, scheduled at the same time. One is a theater party to be held at the Old Log 
Theater near famed Lake Minnelonka. It will feature a live performance by a cast of five 
players. Tickets, which include transportation to and from the hotel, are $3.50 each. The 
other event is a Mississippi River boat ride which goes through several locks. The vessel 
wliich will carry 250 passengers will be completed at about the time of the convention and 
tickets will be $3.50 including necessary transportation. The Minnesota Organization of the 
Blind is celebrating its Golden Jubilee this year and will mark the occasion during the 
Convention with an open house at the Home which is maintained not only as a residence for 
some of its members but as a place for organizational activities. 

Seven major airlines serve the Twm Cities airport. The hotel is about a twenty minute 
ride and can be reached by airport hmousine for $1.50. Cabs arc more expensive ujiless one 
manages to share a ride with others. 

The area which comprises the Twin Cities is quite metropolitan, and the state one of 
legend, as the Chamber of Commerce is happy to tell. The name Minneapolis is a 
combination of the Indian word ".nryrjie.," meaning v/iiisi, and the Greek word "piiUs," 
meaning citj^-apt for a citv whose limits contain 22 natural lakes. Close by is the site of tlu- 


Minnehaha Falls, which the "Song of Hiawatha" made famous. It is a city which abounds in 
museums, orchestras, baseball, and a number of water sports, to say nothing of restaurants 
and theaters. A number of historic buildings and monuments are located within the city 
limits. General Mills provides tours of its Betty Crocker Kitchens. 

The State of Minnesota with its 10.000 lakes is a natural vacation area. Camping or 
not, resorts for all sorts of outdoor and water activities are available. The fabulous North 
Shore has been proclaimed the second most scenic drive in the United States and it features 
modem conveniences, modern motels and hotels, fine restaurants, well-maintained picnic 
ai^eas and campgrounds, and a modern highway. From the North Shore's craggy cliffs one 
can see huge ore carriers and ocean ships traveling the shipping lanes of the big lake and one 
can visit picturesque lakeshore villages and historic towns. If one does not want to travel 
along Lake Superior the Hiawatha Pioneer tour along the Mississippi River Valley is an 
alternative. Altogether a delightful state in which to spend a convention or even a vacation. 



Ed Sheppard 

1984 is still 14 years off, but Big Brother is already well established on the University 
of Illinois campus. Although Big Brother is the personification of an all-pervading 
bureaucracy in George Orwell's novel. "19S4", to the blind he has for many ages appeared 
in the form of the repugnant custodial attitude, "We know what's best for you." 

A L"lii!d college student froni Iowa. Loren Schmitt, has courageously faced and 
successfully fought against this attitude during the past yeai-. Loren's story deser\'es telling if 
only because his experiences can sei-ve as a guiding light for those who find themseh'cs in 
similar situations. 

Loren, a 24-ycar-oki native of Iowa City, was first in liis graduating class at the Iowa 
Braille and Sight Saving School. After learning the alternative techniques of blindness at the 
Orientation Center of the Iowa Commission for the Blind, he attended Iowa State 
University and was graduated from the University of Iowa, where he majored in labor 

Loren's general competence and capability is evidenced by his summer 
employment-one season as a counselor at a camp for crippled children and adults, and 
another at the Iowa regional library for the blind, where he transported and shelved books. 


Desirous of a graduate degree in labor relations, he sought admission to the University 
of Illinois' Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations. 

On April 7th, 1969, the Institute informed Loren that his application for admission 
"has been carefully examined by our Committee on Admissions. The Committee is 
recommending to the Graduate College that you be admitted to the University as a 
candidate for a Master of Arts degree in labor and industrial relations beginning in 
September, 1969." 

So far, so good. 

But Loren's application had noted that he is blind, and this set some of the 
all-too-familiar wheels in motion. 

On May 2nd the University's Office of Admissions and Records wrote Loren a brief 
letter: "Since you indicate that you have a physical handicap, and in accordance with our 
policy, it will be necessary for you to clear with the rehabilitation center before final action 
is taken on your application. Therefore, we are asking the Student Rehabilitation Center to 
send you the necessary infonnation for this purpose." 

Loren also received a longer letter from Mr. Joseph F. Konitzki, the assistant director 
of the university's Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services: 

Dear Mr. Schmitt: 

The Office of Admissions has referred you to our Division to complete the 
processing of your application to the University of Illinois. Since your application 
makes reference to a physical disabihty, your admission to the University is not 
only dependent upon academic acceptance from the Office of Admissions but is 
also dependent upon clearance from the Division of Rehabilitation-Education 
Services. This procedure will in no way jeopardize your consideration for 
admission. It does give us an opportunity to assess your needs as a prospective 
student before final admission is granted and before matriculation. 

We are sending materials under separate cover which describe the services and 
facilities of the Rehabilitation-Education Center. If you will refer to page five 
(STEPS FOR ADMISSION) of the descriptive literature, you will find directives 
you should follow in completing your application for admission to the University 
through our Division. 

All or part of the various services offered by this Divison are used by students 
with all causes and manifestations of physical disability, from the student with a 
minor ambulatory problem to the student with severe paralysis, permanently 
confined to a wheelchair; from the partially sighted student in need of large print 
materials to the totally blind student in need of Brailled materials, tapes and 


readers. You will note that our services include assistance with registration, 
transportation arrangements, scheduling of classes to account for proper time and 
distances, and physical therapy. Additional opportunities and services are referred 
to in our literature. 

The student with a disability, whether using all or part of our services, lives in the 
regular residence halls with the regular student body and attends regular classes. 
In matters of housing we coordinate with the Housing Division in the student's 

We expect you to review our literature carefully and respond to our steps for 
admission. When you know that the items in our steps for admission aie acounted 
for, we expect you to write to us to arrange an appointment date for the required 
interview and physical evaluation. 

Very truly yours, 

Joseph F. Konitzki 
Assistant Director 

Then came a seven-page informational publication on the Rehabilitation-Education 
Center, starting with the general statement that: 

The University of Illinois Rehabilitation-Education Program and 
Rehabilitation-Education Center make it possible for properly qualified 
individuals with severe, pennanent, physical disabiUties to pursue a higher 
education and to benefit from all related experiences which are so much a part of 
a college education and common to all other students. In providing for the general 
welfare of disabled students the Program coordinates all facilities, services, and 
functions for the realization of each individual's vocational objective without the 
neglect of his physical, emotional and social development. The Program is 
concerned with all components of the broad scheme of rehabilitation, attaching 
equal significance to administration, policy, facihties, teaching, counseling, 
therapies, adapted sports and recreation, transportation, safety, legal aspects, 
finance, public orientation and education. 

After noting that all of the university buildings are accessible to students in wheelchairs 
and listing the eleven departments of the division, the publication launched into a 
description of the various services that are available. Some are gems. Admission services 
include "preadmission counseling and evaluation, the collation of psychometric materials, 
medical materials, school history, and where necessary, the collation of special case 
materials. These are supplemented by special tests administered by the Center and by 
physical and functional evaluations m determining the readiness of a student to begin his 


work at the University of Illinois." 

(Note: Merriam-Webster defines "psychometric" as the "psychological theory or 
technique of mental measurement.") 

This paragraph on admissions makes one wonder whether the division is dealing with 
students, or with patients. 

Another service described is "Orientation," which supplements the normal orientation 
procedures undergone by all of the university's students. This includes instruction "in the 
techniques of study habits, on the planning of efficient use of time and on methods of 
handling personal and medical problems." 

Having received his degree from the University of Iowa, we can assume that Loren has 
acquired good study habits and the efficient use of his time! We can also assume that even a 
freshman entering the University of Illinois must have acquired these good habits, or else 
how could he have achieved high enough grades in high school to quahfy for admission? In 
any case, the handicapped freshman should not be presumed to have poorer study habits 
than the non-handicapped. If the university wishes to establish a program to assist those 
with poor study habits, then it should help all who have poor study habits (the handicapped 
and the non-handicapped alike) not just the handicapped, regardless of their habits. 

Another gem of a service is "physical therapy," although it did not apply to Loren, 
since it is required only of freshmen and sophomores. The physical therapy includes "special 
exercise, instruction in self care, functional skills, specific skills, and re-education on an 
individually supervised basis." 

Evidently, none of the services is to be taken lightly. "Counseling," for example, 
"includes personal, academic and paramedical counseling and preadmission counseling 
which is very intense and comprehensive and in many cases extends over two and three 

A full page of the publication is devoted to the "Psychometric Report." This deals 
with a Hst of tests which is "our minimum battery with which we asses an applicant's 
readiness to pursue advanced academic study." 

One of the required tests is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. (WAIS): 

For this instrument we definitely want the full psychological assessment of the 
applicant rather than the bare reporting of intelligence quotients and/or sub-test 
scores. In this regard the psychologist administering the WAIS should also report 
any clinical evidence derived from the administration of other test instruments 
and devices that he normally uses, such as Rorshach, TAT, etc. We do not want to 
stress that the WAIS together with the individual assessment of the applicant is a 
minimum requirement. 


It should be remembered that this deals merely with students wishing to attend a 
university, not with would-be astronauts aspiring to a landing on Mars. 

It is not surprising that Loren wrote the following letter to Mr. Konitzki on June 24th, 

Dear Mr. Konitzki: 

I am in receipt of your letter regarding my admission to the University of Illinois. 
I must say I found your letter surprising, since I had requested no assistance from 
the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services. Several of your statements are 
cause for concern. 

You say, "Since your application makes reference to a physical disability, your 
admission to the University is not only dependent upon academic acceptance 
from the Office of Admissions, but is also dependent upon clearance from the 
Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services." This would appear to suggest that 
my admission is contingent on acceptance by your Division. I seriously question 
the wisdom of a policy which singles out physically disabled people and requires 
of us additional tests, interviews, and evaluations. In reference to your policy you 
state, "It does give us an opportunity to assess your needs as a prospective student 
before final admission is granted, and before matriculation." Believing as I do that 
disabled people are normal individuals, I believe we need no special help in 
asserting our needs. You note, "In matters of housing, we coordinate with the 
housing division in the student's behalf." This seems to imply not that there is a 
shortage of accommodations, but rather that such consideration is deemed 
necessary for disabled students. In my case, special consideration regarding room 
assignment is neither needed nor desired. In closing you assert, "When you know 
that the items in our steps for admission are accounted for, we expect you to 
write to us to aiTange an appointment date for the required interview and physical 
evaluation." Once again, the relationship of a disabled student to your Division is 
apparently compulsory'. 

Your letter and the accompanying literature raise several questions: 

A. Is the admission of disabled students to the University of Illinois conditioned 
on acceptance of your services, and if so, why? 

B. Does a disabled student have the option of using some of your services and 
not others? 

C. Are the psychological tests, to which your htcrature refers, required of all 
students, or only those who are physically disabled? If the latter is the case 
how is this justified? 

If you find my letter offensive, be assured that this is not my intent. I respond in 
this way because I am convinced that bUnd people are capable of making their 


own arrangements and seeking out needed services. 

Yours very truly, 

Loren O. Schmitt 

Mr. Konitzki did not waste any time in replying. Under date of June 27, 1969 he 

Dear Mr. Schmitt: 

We were pleased to receive your letter of June 24, and assure you we did not 
consider it offensive. In fact, your letter conveys an assertiveness more of which 
we would like to see among many blind students and other students with 
disabilities we see each year. You would be surprised to know that far too many 
physically disabled applicants to the University, including graduate students, do 
not know what they want to do here, nor have many been as accomphshed or 
perhaps as organized as you appear to be. Having been in the business of 
facilitating the college student with severe physical disability for 21 years, our 
experiences indicate that far too many applicants have estabUshed records based 
on concessions and solictiousness. In many of these cases the undergraduate 
and/or high school transcript are not always the most valid bases on which to plan 
vocationally and/or academically. Our procedure (steps for admission, interview 
and in the case of the wheelchair student, physical evaluation) is designed not 
only to facilitate the qualified college student in a normal setting with appropriate 
services, but also to realistically advise and counsel those people who are not 
undergraduate or graduate cahber but who have been led to believe otherwise. 

We too are concerned and do something about fostering independence. With 
reference to assessing an applicant's needs, we are concerned about the ability of 
the individual to function effectively as he is faced with the rigors of college 
study. In the case of the severely paralyzed wheelchair student, we are concerned 
about his ability to independently push himself about, shower, dress, toilet, etc. If 
we feel the individual, upon visitation, has the potential to do more than he is 
doing, we make every effort to outline a program by which these things can be 
accomplished if the individual wishes to live independently in the regular 
residence halls with all other students. Our emphasis is aimed at encouraging as 
much independence as possible so that the individual learns to function 
effectively whether it be on this campus or in later life once his degree is earned. 
In the case of the blind student our concern is whether the individual has 
effectively learned the skills of the blind. This being the large campus that it is it 
is very important for the blind student to be an effective traveler in addition to 
being able to handle braille, typing, braille writing, etc-all those things which 


from your manner of expression I would expect you to be handling very well. 
Nevertheless, as noted in the previous paragraph, you would be amazed to learn 
the number of these people who have not effectively learned these skills which we 
are convinced need to be critically assessed in order to determine whether an 
individual is ready to take on a competitive academic program and will function 
effectively once the degree is earned and the job won. Obviously, many of these 
things are more critically lacking in the incoming freshman than the graduate 
student. Nevertheless, our Division is charged with the responsibiUty by the Office 
of Admissions and Board of Trustees to determine who is ready to compete here, 
and in the case of those who are not ready suggest ways in which perhaps 
eventually they could be. 

With respect to housing, as emphasized in all of our literature all students with or 
without physical disabilities live in the regular residence halls. Shower and other 
facihties in the residence halls, as well as on campus, have been designed so that 
the individual permanently confined to a wheelchair can carry out his activities of 
daily living independently. Obviously, in the case of the blind student, this kind 
of facilitation is not that critical. However, the Housing Division is most aware of 
the fact that we routinely see apphcants desirous of attending the University of 
Illinois and are very much aware of the fact that often, for many reasons, the 
credentials for the disabled student may be processed late and the possibility 
always exists that housing may be filled. We simply have prearranged with housing 
that a certain number of spaces be saved each year so that we may assign 
appropriate spaces should an applicant apply late. Again, the campus being as 
large as it is, there are certain areas of housing, depending on college and 
curriculum, that are more advantageous to some students over others. In many 
cases when University Housing is filled, students may be forced to live some 
distance from campus, away from bus routes, which may result in costly cab fare 
or other unconveniences depending on the travel ability of the individual. 

The justification of the pyschometric test battery is simply explained that we 
have dealt with hundreds of physically disabled students, cerebral palsy, bhnd, 
spinal cord injury, etc, and have found all of these to be searching for 
vocational-career direction as they plan their futures, whether coming from high 
school or from college. Many, as is true in the case of many able-bodied people as 
well, are not certain of what they can do, are not certain about strengths and 
weaknesses, interests and aptitudes, and over and over again pose a question of 
what can I do in light of the physical disability which exists. As noted earlier, not 
as many people are as fortunate as you, perhaps, to know precisely what they 
wish to do and what abilities they bring to the task of finding out. When we send 
materials to applicants, whether they be bhnd or spinal cord injury, graduate or 
undergraduate, we have no knowledge of who they are and what skills they 
posses, to what extent they are mature, self-directing, etc. Since we are involved 
with all levels of students, all colleges and curricula, it is most helpful to our 
Supervisor of Counsehng to have test profiles as well as growth and development 


indices on all students, the most successful and the unsuccessful, those with 
direction and accomplishment and those lacking it. Therefore, in the few 
instances when these test results are not directly helpful to the applicant, they are 
most helpful to us and to many other physically disabled students in the future. 
We will be glad to make an exception in your case and agree that it will not be 
necessary for you to respond to the psychometric requirement before you visit us. 
We would be very happy to administer minimum testing. We may be in a better 
position to reduce the testing considerably if we had in our possession transcripts 
from your previous college work. Also, if you have had some psychometric testing 
done in the past (you will notice that most of our test requirements are 
vocationally oriented as it relates to college preparation) we would be glad to have 
this on hand at the tmie of your visit rather than resort to our testing alone. 

I trust this has been somewhat helpful. Rest assured, our facilitation and 
programing exists not because we look at the disabled as abnormal. We are most 
keenly aware, however, of the fact that far too often their treatment has been 
either one of over solictiousness or being penalized for conditions which only 
result in their having to go about doing things differently. 

Veiy truly yours, 

Joseph F. Konitzki 
Assistant Director 


What it boils down to is, "You're pretty competent (and besides, you may cause me 
trouble) so you won't have to take some of the tests." But this leads to a broader 
question-if the requirements are not necessary for this particular student, what about 
similar students who came before him, and those who will follow? 

Nevertheless, Loren's protests apparently created some ripples at the University of 
Illinois. On August 26th the director of the university's Institute of Labor and Industrial 
Relations, Melvin Rothbaum, wrote the following letter: 

Dear Mr. Schmitt: 

We have just been advised by the Graduate College that a problem has arisen in 
relation to your admittance to the University. Under rules estabhshed by the 
Board of Trustees, it is necessary for all apphcations from persons with physical 
disabilities such as yours to be reviewed by the Division of 
Rehabilitation-Education Services. We are infonned that you have objected to this 
procedure on the grounds that you are not asking for any special assistance or 



We have discussed the matter with the Director of the Division of 
Rehabilitation-Education Services and beHeve that there may be some 
misunderstajiding of the role of their Center and the procedures involved. 
Students like yourself are under no obligation to use any of the facihties of the 
Center nor are there any constraints on where you live or the conditions under 
which you go about your daily life. The chief reason, apart from the desire to 
assist students with disabilities, is that the University is a leader in the nation in 
this area and gets far more applications than it can accept. From time to time 
problems arise out of these apphcations which make it necessary to take 
precautions in the interest of the University as well as of the individuals involved. 

In your case we expect no problems of any kind and admission to be routine. 
Nonetheless the following steps are necessary: 

1. To submit the special registration form sent you by the 
Rehabihtation-Education Center. Another copy is enclosed. 

2. If your blindness has existed since birth, it is sufficient to note this fact on 
the form, with cause unknown. If it occurred later, a statement from any 
recognized medical source or agency as to the nature of the disability and 
the cause is desired. 

3. All new students, regardless of any question of disability, must take a 
physical examination before completion of registration. The necessary 
medical forms are sent to the student after he receives his pennit to enter 
from the Admissions Office. He can then take the examination from his 
home physician if he prefers. 

4. Finally, the Center will administer to you the Graduate Record Exam in 
special form after your arrival. When we wrote to you last March about the 
exam, we did not know that this could be done here. 

May I emphasize that we at the Institute have no doubts about your abilities in 
relation to our program and look forward to your joining us. We regret that the 
Center's special procedures are required in your case, but we do not believe that 
you will find them onerous in any sense. 

I would urge you also to take advantage of some of the excellent services provided 
by the Center. For example, on September 2, the Center starts an orientation 
program for blind students in which, among other things, special maps describing 
the campus are made available, there is a tour of the library, and information is 
provided about braille facilities. Such an orientation would save you a great deal 
of time because this is a very large and complex campus. If you are not able to 


attend this orientation program, you can undoubtedly get similar assistance later. 

It is regretable that this matter was not brought to our attention earlier. We hope 
that you will take the necessary steps as soon as possible because registration 
starts on September 1 1 and the permit to enter must be received from the 
Graduate College prior to registration. 


Melvin Rothbaum 

Under date of September 4th, 1969, Loren replied to Dr. Rothbaum: 

Dear Dr. Rothbaum: 

I am in receipt of your letter of August 26.and I feel in somewhat of a dilemma 
concerning the whole matter of my admission to the University of Illinois. On the 
one hand I very much want to come and feel that you are only attempting to 
follow policy established by the University. Also, I do not want to be arbitrary or 

On the other hand, I feel that there is a limit beyond which principle should not 
be sacrificed to expediency. In this connection I would like for you to see my 
letter of June 24 to Mr. Konitzki and his reply dated June 27. It seems to me that 
it is one thing for the University to wish to offer assistance to students with a 
"physical disability," but it is quite another for the University to require that the 
prospective student accept such "services" whether he wants them or not. In 
other words, if I choose to come to the University and accept my chances in open 
competition with other students, I feel that I should not have to meet extra or 
additional requirements in doing so. The very fact of having to meet such 
requirements constitutes, it seems to me, unreasonable and detrimental 
classification-that is, discriminatory treatment. The fact that the University may 
not regard the treatment as discriminatory is irrelevant since most people who 
engage in discriminatory action do not regard their behavior as anything other 
than reasonable procedure. 

In your letter of August 26 you say: "We regret that the Center's special 
procedures are required in your case, but we do not believe that you will find 
them onerous in any sense." As you can see, I do not feel that these comments 
deal with the principal question at issue. 

In other words, to use a rather fanciful example, let us suppose that the 
University should decide that all blind students must submit (as a condition 


precedent to admission to the graduate school) a copy of the marriage license of 
their parents. It might be argued that blind students already have some problems 
and that the added factor of illegitimacy (in those instances where such was the 
case) would cause added academic and emotional complications-complications of 
which University officials should be aware in order to "help" the student. Let us 
suppose that a blind student objects to this requirement. A University official 
might respond that the requirement will not take much time or be "onerous." It 
is only a matter of a few minutes to show the copy of the marriage license, and 
this is all that will be asked. I must tell you that I would strenuously object to this 
requirement, not because of my legitimacy but because only blind students were 
asked to comply with it. 

As I said at the outset, I do not wish to be arbitrary or unreasonable. Therefore, I 
would say this: I ain now receiving semces from the RehabOitation Division of 
the Iowa Commission for the Blind. This has been the case for several years. 
Before entering undergraduate work, I spent several months in orientation 
training at the Commission's Rehabilitation Center. While there I became 
proficient in independent travel and other techniques of bUndness. I went through 
undergraduate work under the sponsorship of the Iowa Commission for the Blind, 
and I propose to continue my relationship with them while I am in graduate 
school. It seems to me that it would only confuse matters to become involved 
with the rehabilitation programs and procedures of another state or of the 
University of Illinois. I believe that since my life is the one involved I should have 
the riglit to make this decision and to succeed or fail according to my own merit. 
I hope that this will appear reasonable to you and the other University officials 
involved. The association which I seek witli the University of Illinois is academic, 
not rehabilitative. 

Even so, I am willing to complete the special registration form and, in fact, 
herewith enclose it. Also, 1 am willing to submit to the special interview required 
by the Division of Rehabilitation-Education Services. Finally, I agree to take the 
special graduate record examination administered by the Division of 
Rehabilitation-Education Services even though I have been advised by the 
Educational Testing Service that no special requirements are approved for 
administration of this test to blind students. 

Let me add one final thing: I have consulted with an attorney concerning this 
matter and am informed by him that these special procedures (when required as a 
condition of admission to the graduate school to your University) may not be in 
accordance with the law and may be a violation of my Constitutional rights as a 
citizen. Therefore, I submit to these procedures with the understanding that I 
may wish to explore the legal ramifications involved. I submit because I feel that I 
must-that is. if I wish to pursue my education at your University. 

With a carbon copy of this letter I am transmitting the special registration foirn to 


Mr. Konitzki so that my admission to the graduate school for the fall semester 
may be facilitated. Since time is now a critical factor, I shall appreciate being 
advised immediately of my next step. My home telephone number is Area Code 

Yours very truly, 

Loren O. Schmitt 

P.S. I observe that the special registration form requires a snapshot. I do not have 
one at present, but I could bring it with me when I come for the interview. 

Loren's prolonged negotiations with the University of Illinois obviously had a double effect. 
He reports that when he was interviewed by Mr. Konitzki and a vocational counselor for the 
blind, "They sought to impress upon me my good fortune in being accepted at all after the 
'belligerent' nature of my correspondence. They told me I did not really understand their 
services, and that if I understood them I would feel differently. . . they told me repeatedly 
that my attitudes (particularly those concerning blindness) are bad, and that I must learn 
that one cannot go through Ufe 'threatening people' as I had done in my letters to them." 

Loren said he consented to take the travel test because he needed a clearance sHp from 
the University's RehabiHtation-Education Center before he could register at the school. But 
because of his protests, the travel test and the interview were the only items required of him 
over and above the university's normal admission requirements. He was excused from taking 
all of the formal tests. 

Nevertheless, the custodial atmosphere lingers. Loren reports that the Rehabilitation 
Center attempted to persuade him to change cafeterias. "I eat with the other fellows from 
my residence hall at a place about three blocks away, but the Rehabilitation Center tried to 
arrange my meals at a cafeteria across the street from my dorm, so I wouldn't have to walk 
so far." 

Or take the case of another blind student, as related by Loren: "She told me that she 
asked a travel instructor how to get to one of the buildings. He ended up by not telling her 
where it is, and simply told her she should take the bus that carries disabled students. She 
said she finally got directions from another student." 

Referring to the University's Rehabilitation-Education Center and its effect on the lives 
of the physically handicapped students, Loren summed it up this way: "They mean well, 
but there just isn't anything they're not involved in." 

As is so often the case with custodialism-the blind man's Big Brother-the intentions 
are good, but the road stUl leads to hell. 


No one can argue against the need for certain aids and services for the physically 
handicapped. But there are those who stress disabilities rather than abihties, and would 
figuratively take a man who can walk with crutches and place hun in a wheelchair, because 
"It'll be easier for the poor fellow, and he'll be more comfortable that way." 

Loren Schinitt is a man well versed in the alternative techniques of blindness and 
completely able to care for himself. Yet, one of the nation's largest institutions of higher 
learning had to be confronted with the possibility of legal action before it consented to deal 
with him on a more nearly normal basis. 

But while Loren Schmitt won a battle at the University of Illinois, the overall picture is 
not good. For in recent years there has been increasing talk among the 
"we-know-what's-best-for-you" rehabihtators of designating certain universities as regional 
centers of learning for the physically handicapped. We can assume such regional centers 
would feature aU the fol-de-rol encountered by Loren, and undoubtedly the University of 
Illinois would be one of the leaders! 

The organized blind have been fighting hard to free themselves from the stifling 
blanket of custodiahsm Needless to say, if we and others were to be consigned to regional 
institutions of learnmg. it would be a giant step backward. 

The organized blind must make the "custodians of our welfare" at the University of 
Ilhnois and elsewhere realize that two basic critena must be met when offering services: Are 
they beneficial, and are they wanted ? 

Big Brother would not be so big on the Illinois campus if the Rehabilitation-Education 
staff would examine the philosophy behind a simple statement on an application for 
admission that was submitted to the University of Iowa in 1965. The application was 
submitted by Loren Schmitt. In the space marked "physical disability" he wrote: "I am 
bhnd, but this does not require special treatment." 

[All spelling, punctuation, and grammatical usage are as they appear in the letters.] 



1 644 Lincoln 

Denver, Colorado 80203 

February 7, 1970 

Dr. Kenneth Jernigan, President 
National Federation of the Blind 
524 Fourth Street 
Des Moines, Iowa 50309 

Dear Dr. Jernigan: 

Oops! Will someone turn off the statistics machine? Either that or we've had a terrific 
population explosion, according to the January issue of True magazine, where the very back 
of the book yielded this little quote: 

Question: What percentage of the 8.5 million people on welfare can be called 

Answer: Children under 18 make up 50% of the 8.5 million people on welfare, 
while the blind account for 40%. This leaves only 10% that can be called 
employable. Nearly all of the country's 22 milHon poor are already regularly 

Don't tell the Government, but according to my ten-toe computer that would seem to 
leave some 3.4 million blind welfare recipients unable to work-to say nothing of many 
times that number who can and do work, or live by other means. Let's see, here in Colorado 
about one out of every 16 blind persons draws Aid to the Blind and, if that's typical, our 
nation's total bUnd population should be something like- well, the Denver Area Association 
of the Blind is holding Yoga classes for its members, so we're a bit twisted, but we'll all 
come out looking andfeeUng like a miUion. 

Anyway, let's not disillusion the editors of True magazine who are probably quite 
happy in the thought that their Talking Book edition reaches so many millions and millions 
and millions of readers. Nor should we disparage statistics. After all, it took statistics to 
show that Yale graduates have 1.3 children, while Vassar graduates have 1.7 children, thus 
proving that women have more children than men. 

Confusedly yours, 
Maijorie Gallien 



Most MONITOR readers have attended or at least read about statewide conventions of 
NFB affiliates. A smalle number have actually seen the national convention come to their 
city. But the Capital Chapter, the NFB affiliate in Washington, D. C, is doing things in 
somewhat reverse order. In 1965, Washington hosted the Silver Anniversary convention of 
the National Federation. Now, in 1970, it is planning its first local convention. 

Eight hundred thousand people hve in the District of Columbia. It is estimated that 
there may be as many as three thousand blind people in the city. The Capital Chapter, 
however, has an active membership of less than forty, but has been growing rapidly in recent 
months. Though small, the chapter is an active one. For example, it recently won a 
definitive ruhng from local YMCA directors prohibiting discrimination against blind persons 
in "Y" activities or place of lodging. In another field, the chapter maintains a speakers 
bureau, providing informative programs for such groups as the Optimists, Lions Clubs, and 
church groups. 

The convention to be held Saturday, May 16 at the Ambassador Hotel is aimed at two 
major needs: To inform blind persons and those who work with them about the services and 
agencies that exist for their benefit and to acquaint the population generally with the 
Federation and its work. 

After the invocation and welcome by Chapter President, Virginia Nagle. NFB President 
Kenneth Jernigan and District Mayor Walter Washington, the real work begins. 
Representatives of such organizations as the Columbia Lighthouse, the Lions Eye Bank, the 
Federal Civil Service Commission, the District Pubhc School's Division of Special Education 
and others, will tell the assembly what their agencies have to offer the blind and answer 
questions from the floor. The closing session in the afternoon is designed as an open forum, 
bearing the intriguing title "What's on Your Mind." Local Vice President Tom Bickford will 
join Ken Jernigan and John Nagle in discussing anything of interest to anyone 
present-anything pertaining to the Federation or blindness, that is. Mr. Jernigan appears 
again in the evening as the banquet speaker. 

The Capital Chapter of the National Federation of the Bhnd has been in the National 
Federation since 1960. If tliis first area-wide convention is a success, the effort will be 
repeated. Though primarily structured for Washington area residents, the convention is open 
to anyone interested who can get to Washington on Saturday, May 16. For further 
information, you may write to: Capital Chapter of the National Federation of the Blind, 
1346 Connecticut Avenue, N. W., Suite 212, Washington, D. C. 20036; or call Virginia Nagle 
at area code 301, 652-3569. 



Every chapter has at least a few assassins within its ranks trying to do it in for a variety 
of reasons. If you have a grudge against "the way things are going" in your association and 
want to stop it "before it's too late," here's a simple plan of guerilla warfare for you to 

1. Stay away from meetings. 

2. If you do come, find fault. 

3. Decline office or appointment to a committee. 
4 Get sore if you aren't nominated or appointed. 

5. After you are named, don't attend board or committee meetings. 

6 If you get to one, in spite of your better judgement, clam up until it's over-then sound 
off on how things really should have been done. 

7. Do no work if you can help it. When the Old Reliables pitch in, accuse them of being a 

8. Oppose all banquets, parties, and shindigs as being a waste of members' money. 

9. If everything is strictly business, complain that the meetings are dull and the officers 
are a bunch of sticks. 

10. Never accept a place at the head table. 

1 1. If you aren't asked to sit there, threaten to resign because you "aren't appreciated." 

12. Don't rush to pay your dues. Let the directors sweat; after all, they wrote the budget. 
13 Read mail from headquarters only now and then; don't reply if you can help it. 


[Editor's Note: Readers of the May, 1968 issue of The Braille Monitor will recall an article 
entitled "Beckwith 'Supervised' Out of Vending Stand," telling how New Hampshire was 
marching firmly backward in its administration of the vending stand program. 
Subsequently, through the efforts (legal and otherwise) of the National Federation of the 
Blind, the State agency backed down and reinstated Al Beckwith (President of the New 
Hampshire Federation of the Blind) in a better location. However, from the following 
correspondence it would appear that New Hampshire has resumed its backward march.] 


January 6, 1970 

Mr. Fnuiklin VanVliet, Treasurer 
National Federation of the Blind 
207 Fisherville Road 
Penacook. New Hampshire 03301 

Dear Franklin: 

The two letters fron\ Carl Camp are absolutely astonishing. If, as I understand it, Mr. 
Clatanoff is sighted and is now being made manager of the stand, I do not see how this can 
legally be done. Further, the entire procedure for dealing with Fletcher seems to be a ruse to 
evade the provisions of the Randolph-Sheppard Act. Apparently, Fletcher has been in 
"training'" at the stand for a year and is to continue in that status. 1 never heard of any 
individual who required more than two or three months of stand training at the outside, 
assuming that he had the potential ever to handle the job. The specific list of duties would 
seem to make it clear that Mr. Camp does not believe a blind person can really manage a 
snack bar operation-supervise preparation of hot foods, storage, etc. 

In other words I think there has been a clear violation of the federal rules and 
regulations and that such has been the case for the past few months. I think that you should 
have the attorney make contact with the state agency to ask for a "fair hearing." 


Kenneth Jernigan, President 
National Federation of the Blind 



December 29, 1969 

Mr. Kenneth Jernigan,' President 
National Federation of the Bluid 
524 Fourth Street 
Des Moines, Iowa 50309 

Dear Ken: 


You will find enclosed copies of the letters which I discussed with you earlier this 
morning on the phone pertaining to Tom Fletcher of the State House Snack Bar in Concord. 
Your remarks on the enclosed would be greatly appreciated after you have had time to 
peruse same. Meanwhile, we will pursue with all haste actions which will hopefully resolve 
the situation through our attorneys Sheridan and Spellman. 

It would seem to me foolhardy on behalf of Camp to engage in such activity as is 
indicated in the enclosed letters, since he has already lost through legal action in the 
Beckwith case. How many times does it have to occur before some people acquire any sense 
and respect for a well-meaning program? 

Very cordially yours, 

Frankhn VanVliet, Treasurer 


c.c. Hugh Koford 


Bureau of Blind Semces 

December 15, 1969 

Mr. Thomas Fletcher 
State House Snack Bar 
Concord, New Hampshire 03301 

Dear Mr. Fletcher: 

As the first year of your employment at the State House Snack Bar draws to a close, I 
wish to comment on your progress and your on-the-job training for Vending Stand 

You have become aware, I am sure, that the operation of the Snack Bar is a strenuous 
and demanding job, involving a long work day and a constant attention to the complex and 
manifold duties which are inherent in its operation. 

Your record of attendance, your attention to duty and your courteous service has been 
excellent. You have made satisfactoiy progress in record keeping and rendering of reports. 
There still exists a need for continued on-the-job training and for additional experience in 
tile areas of food service, control of merchandise and in the pricing and portion control of 


food and beverages. 

In order to expand your training and to increase its effectiveness in the areas 
mentioned, and to clearly set forth your responsibilities. 1 am making some organizational 
changes in the operation of the Snack Bar and establishing several new procedures to 
become effective at once. 

The Vending Stand Coordinator, Vt. Walter Clatanoff. becomes the Manager of the 
Snack Bar in addition to his other duties. Your designation as "Acting Manager" previously 
assigned to you is therefore no longer necessary and is now withdrawn. You will be under 
the direct supervision of Mr. Clatanoff and will perform the duties and training which he 
assigns or delegates to you. Specific duties, a majority of which are already assigned to you, 
are listed below. You will work in close cooperation and harmony with the Food Service 
Supervisor (cuiTently Mrs. Tavello) who is responsible for the operation of the kitchen 
including menu planning and food preparation. Your training must include a first hand 
knowledge of food service operations and it is important therefore, that you work closely 
with the Food Service Supervisor. Other Snack Bar employees will be under the supervision 
of the Food Service Supervisor unless otherwise assigned by the ^^anager. 

The following specific duties are assigned to you: 

a. Report to stand at 7 a.m. and open stand for business at 7:30 a.m. 

b. Make over-the-counter sales of candy, confectionery, tobacco items, sundries and 
dispense cold beverages. 

c. Make the necessary amount of coffee in the electric coffee urn and the Cory coffee 
machine (when required) including daily cleaning of urns and equipment. 

d. Insure operation of the hot chocolate machine, including daily cleaning of equipment. 

e. Transmit orders for food to the kitchen and deliver filled orders to the customers at 
the counter. 

f. Supervise the customer self-service line for sandwiches, pastries, coffee, hot tea, hot 
chocolate, daily products, juices, ice cream and insure that adequate stocks are 
maintained and necessary accessories (mOk, cream, saccharin, cups, utensils, napkins) 
are provided. 

g. Be responsible for the cash box (customer self-service honor system), the cash drawer, 
and have accountabihty for all funds: safeguard all funds (except the change fund) by 
placing them in the custody of the State Treasurer's Office prior to the closing hour. 

h. Supervise operation of the coin-operated coca-cola, pepsi and cigarette vending 
machines including restocking and daily collection of income. 

i. Purchase all merchandise except meats, fresh produce, and other sandwich and hot 
food ingredients, from authorized vendors or dealers. 

j. Maintain the newspaper rack including counting papers, placing on racks, and insuring 
return for credit of all unsold papers. 


C'heck in all merchandise purchased by you, store same properly in stock room or in 
snack bar. and pay all vendors in cash upon delivery. 

Keep store room clean and orderly. 

Keep counter clean at all times and observe all sanitary standards. 

Enter appropriate entries each day in weekly operating report and submit to Vending 
Stands Coordinator no later than Tuesday each week. 

Enter you "time in" and "time out" daily on weekly payroll report (all other 
employees will do same) and submit report to vending stands coordinator no later than 
9:00 a.m. each Tuesday. 

Close the stand at 5:00 p.m. daily, insure tliat all equipment utilized by you is cleaned, 
clean counter area, secure all merchandise, and lock store room, snack bar door, ice 
cream chest, milk (and juice) cold cabinet. 

Very truly yours. 

Carl Camp, ACSW 


cc: Mr. George Muiphy, Director, Division of Welfare 

Bureau of Blind Services 

August 1,1969 

Mrs. Dorothy Tavello 

12 McKee Drive 

Green Acres Trailer Court 

Concord, New Hampshire 03301 

Dear .Mrs. TavcHo: 

This letter is to confirm the offer of employment and the conditions thereto which. 
were previously made verbally to you by the Bureau of Blind Services, Division of Welfare, 
State of New Hampshire, represented by Mr. Walter G. Clatanoff, Vending Stands 

Your employment will be with the Vending Stand Program for the Blind at the State 
House Snack Bar. State House Basement, Concord, NH in the position of Food Service 


Supervisor, starting August 4, 1969. Specific duties of your position are listed below. 

It is understood that you will be employed at the State House Snack Bar for a 
minimum of two calendai- months, and that you will be free at the end of that time to 
accept employment at other locations of the Vending Stand Program for the Blind or other 

Your position at the State House Snack Bar is on an equal level with the bhnd Acting 
Manager, currently Mr. Thomas Fletcher. Your immediate supervisor will be the Vending 
Stands Coordinator, Mr. Walter G. Clatanoff, who is also Mr. Fletcher's immediate 
supervisor. One or more female workers who are engaged in food preparation and counter 
service will be your subordinates. The position requires you to work in close harmony and 
cooperation with the Acting Manager. 

Your salary will be at the rate of S2.00 per hour with a minimum of fifty hours per 
week guaranteed and the privilege of requesting a lesser number of hours, but not below 40 
hours per week. Payment will be by check no later than Wednesday of the preceding week 
of work. Any required overtime work will be at the regular hourly rate. 

Working hours will normally be from 6:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday 
with time off for a half-hour lunch period and the customary coffee and rest breaks. 
Deviations from the normal working hours to meet special requirements of the stand will be 
subject to the approval of the Vending Stand Coordinator. 

Food consumed by you at the stand will be at the expense of the stand. In accordance 
with the Vending Stand Program Policy you are entitled to two weeks vacation with pay 
annually as a full time employee with over four years' service. You will also be paid for all 
State Holidays when the stand is closed. Blue Cross-Blue Shield medical coverage if desired 
by you will be entirely at your expense, but at the group offering cost extended to State 

The position of Food Service Supervisor requires the exercise of initiative, ingenuity 
and creativity. Specific duties include: 

a. Menu planning. 

b. Supen'ision of hot food preparation and sandwich making including portion 
control. (Your active participation will be required frequently.) 

c. Supemsion of coffee making and preparation of other beverages. 

d. Supervision of the storage of all food products. 

e. Establishment of procedures for the efficient and expeditious serving of hot food, 
sandwiches, snacks and beverages. 

f. Maintenance of cleanhness and observance of all health and sanitation 


g. Assisting the Acting Manager by making recommendations for improvements, 
when appropriate, in the areas of sales promotion, merchandise disphiy, pubUcity, 
purchase of stock, and handling of cash. 

Please advise me of your acceptance of this offer of employment. 

It is a pleasure to welcome you back to the Vending Stand Program for the Blind and I 
am sure that the operation of the State House Snack Bar will show marked improvement 
and benefit greatly from your demonstrated ability and expert guidance. 


Carl Camp, ACSW 



J. Campbell Bruce 

[Reprinted from the San Francisco (California) Chronicle . Copyright Chronicle Publishing 
Co., 1970.] 

It happened at the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, where, as at any other museum, 
touching is a form of sacrilege. 

While several people watched curiously, this man with dark glasses leaned over the rail 
and ran his fingers over a bust, emitting an occasional "Ahhhh!" 

His hands went to the rail and, though he still looked at the bronze head, he read aloud 
the inscription in front of the pedestal: "Bust of Balzac, Arms Crossed. . . Auguste 
Rodin. . . bronze, 1 Wi inches. . ." 

Then, as if he'd just remembered something, his fingertips searched the side of Balzac's 
head and he asked a striking blonde, quite earnestly: "Is he deaf?" "Not that I know of," 
she said. "Why?" "No eai's." "They're hidden. Balzac had a shock of hair." "Oh, I see." He 
didn't, not actually. He was George Shearing, the celebrated blind pianist, and this was 
something alien to an exhibit of art treasures for the blind. 


It also provides a new museum experience for those who can see and care to look: they 
too can feel, and no guard will come running. 

The exhibit is itself a masterwork of the California Arts Commission and comprises 
some 30 pieces on loan from major California galleries and valued in excess of S500,000 and 
offering a tactile view of sculptural art from 1200 B.C. to the present. 

Billed as the "world's first traveUng exhibition" of its kind (there's a permanent one 
somewhere in North Carolina), it will remain at the de Young until Februaiy 22. then tour 
the State under the direction of Dianne Sachko of the Arts Commission. 

Capitol Records donated 10,000 talking-book records, on which the actress, Irene 
Dunne, describes the exhibit. They will be given to the blind visitors. 

Its sponsors hope the exhibit will give the sighted "new perceptions of major art works 
through the sense of touch," but, of course, the main idea is to put the blind in touch with 

Shearing later told just what, and how much, this meant to the blind. His fingertips 
explored the smooth lines of a Salome carved out of a redwood burl. 

"Somebody could describe to me forever the smoothness of this redwood," he said, 
"but not until I could feel it myself would I get my own degree of perceptivity." 

And so it was that he could say in all naturalness: "I'd like to look at that bust of 
Balzac again." 

Oh, yes, how could the blind Shearing read that inscription about the Rodin bust? 
Easily, with his fingertips. . . 

The art works stand on a narrow, waist-high platform winding about the gallery, and 
along the edge runs a walnut rail, and on the inside of this rail, opposite each piece with its 
inscription, is a second inscription-in braille. 




Keith Takahashi 

[Reprinted from the San Gabriel Valley (California) Tribune ] 

To the blind person, movement even around his own home is one of subconscious 
confinement as he avoids bumping into objects. 

"All their lives they have had to be careful of everything they do," says Donald Hull. 

Then suddenly, a blind youngster experiences the exhilaration of motion, sound, 
mastery of a new skill and a feeling of independence as he skims along a lake on water skis. 

"There they are, going twenty miles per hour and free as a bird," says Hull. 

To Hull, his wife Lorraine and members of the South El Monte Rotary Club, working 
with blind youngsters has been a heart -warming experience. 

It is also an experience which they hope to share with other organizations throughout 
the country. The South El Monte businessman is in charge of the club's project of drawing 
up lesson plans for teaching the blind how to water ski. 

When completed, the club plans to have the lessons published in booklet form and 
available to organizations-especially water skiing clubs. 

The inspiration for teaching the blind to water ski came through Hull's association with 
Art Speer, an El Monte florist who lost his sight several years ago. 

Out of curiosity, Hull began skiing blindfolded to see if it was possible to teach the 
blind how to handle themselves on skis. He immediately learned how much a person 
without sight depends on his other senses. 

A skier who can see thinks nothing of aligning himself visually with the boat. 

But blindfolded, "I felt things I never felt before," says Hull. A speeding boat throws 
off twin wakes and a stream of bubbles. "You can follow the bubbles and know exactly 
where they are in relation to the boat." 

This summer, Hull and his wife and Rotarians worked with three bhnd girls. Lessons 
began on diy land, progressed to the swimming pool and finally to the Colorado River area. 


At the close of each training session the girls recorded their observations. From these 
records, plus his own experience, Hull and the Rotarians are developing their lesson plans. 

For years, the Hulls have been teaching adults and youngsters how to water ski. "It has 
been a hobby of ours to teach people how to water ski," explains Hull. 

The girls have learned how to take care of themselves in the water. "We teach these 
kids so they can go skiing with anybody," Hull says. 

"It IS important to think of the blind skier not as something exceptional, but as a 
person learning to ski, who can't," notes Beth Hiseler, a nineteen-year-old Stanford 
University coed. 

Beth of 233 Cameron Way in San Gabriel, comments, "I am delighted that another 
active sport is open to me and other blind people." 

Sixteen-year-old twins Voni and Vicki Voss of 2413 Hoyt Avenue, South El Monte, are 
also graduates of the Rotarian's class. 

Regarding training. Voni remarks, "there is no reason why a blind skier can't compete 
with a sighted skier right from the start-actually the only time I think sight helps is when 
you're looking for your ropes." 

Once a person without sight is in the water "the blind skier is no different than anyone 
else," Voni says. 


Sally Hammond 

[Editor's Note: The following story is reprinted from the New York (N.Y.) Post. The 
subject of the stoiy, Mr. Sam Wolff, is President of the New York City Triboro Chapter of 
the Empire State Association of the Blind.] 

Sam Wolff refuses to settle for jobs for the blind that do not make them financially 
self-sufficient. He'd like to see them "completely rehabilitated," not just kept busy. "If they 
know Braille and have good mobility," says Wolff, 30, who was blinded by glaucoma at 12, 
"we feel they've overcome their handicap and are ready for equal employment at an equal 


But since he knows it would be cruel to prepare the bhnd for jobs that won't be 
offered them, he has set up a special employment agency. 

Attacking psychological obstacles on the side of both sighted employer and unsighted 
applicant. Wolff's year-old agency, CHOOSE, Inc., researches new kinds of jobs feasible for 
blind people and persuades corporations, unions, professional schools to give them a chance. 
And he counsels and encourages blind job-seekers. 

Soft -voiced, warm, a man who communicates easily on first meeting, Wolff has 
produced impressive results, having placed 30 blind people in good-paying, responsible jobs 
in the past year. 

Wearing a pin-striped business suit brightened by a psychedelic tie, Wolff, rather short 
and balding, sat back in an office chair at his compact 1 1 Park Place headquarters and 
quoted Freud. 

He recalled that in Freud's view the two most important things for any human were 
"to be able to work and to love," and that to him this meant a bhnd person must be able to 
"marry and pay his family's bills"~a possibility only if he enters the "economic 

But what thwarts this entry, Wolff said, is that "the average person feels an 
apprehension, a nervousness toward the blind because they're different. It's a fear that's 
been culturally passed on through the ages by what Jung calls 'the collective unconscious.' " 

On the other hand, the bhnd also have "an overpowering fear of themselves." he said, 
adding thoughtfully, "Here, we tiy to erase that fear." 

Typical of Wolff's blind applicants is the man who came to CHOOSE last fall after 
eighteen years as a newsstand vendor on 34th Street. He'd qualified for work with the 
Depaitment of Social Services but had been kept waiting two years. Wolff, in three months, 
won him a job as a caseworker. 

Recalling his own "rehabilitation", Wolff said he learned Braille and "mobihty" at the 
New York Institute for the Education of the Blind. Son of a food import broker, he'd been 
blind in one eye since birth and been declared legally blind while attending PS 64 in The 

While studying psychology at CCNY (he graduated with honors, is now deep in a 
Ph.D.), Wolff worked part time for his fathej, calling on customers and selling imported 
foods over the phone. 

Later he counselled high school dropouts and their parents as program director for the 
Harlem Education Program and worked two years at the Bowery Mission giving vigorous 
outdoor therapy to alcohohcs. 


Gaining confidence when seemingly hopeless cases responded, he got the idea for 
CHOOSE. After early infusions on his savings, it now operates on contributions. Today, 
with three paid employees and six volunteers, he hopes for a federal grant. 

In February, 1968, Wolff married Bonnie Joy, a twenty-three-year-old medical 
technician (she isn't blind) who shares his dream and has decorated his office with French 
Impressionist prints. Settled in Brooklyn Heights, he commutes easily to work by subway, 
alone, in twelve minutes. 


Over the years the National Federation of the Blind has sought to bring the safety of 
the white cane to the blind of all America. The white cane has gradually become a symbolic 
staff of independence for the blind, enabling them to walk around freely and confidently~to 
walk by a faitli justified, not only by training and by public good will, but by law. 

"A white cane in our society has become one of the symbols of a blind person's ability 
to come and go on his own. Its use has promoted courtesy and special consideration for the 
blind on our streets and highways. To make our people more fully aware of the meaning of 
the white cane, and of the need for motorists to exercise special care for the blind persons 
who carry it, Congi-ess, by a joint resolution approved on October 6, 1964, has authorized 
the President to proclaim October 15 of each year as White Cane Safety Day. Now, 
therefore, I, Lyndon, B. Johnson, President of the United States of America, do hereby 
proclaim October 15, 1964, as White Cane Safety Day." 

That ringing Presidential proclamation marked the climax of an historic campaign by 
the organized blind to gain recognition by the States and the Nation of the rights of blind 
pedestrians. It was in 1930 that the first State law was passed requiring motorists to stop 
when a blind person crossed the street with a white cane. Today white cane laws are on the 
books of eveiy State in the Union-providing blind persons a legal status in traffic. 

In 1966 Professor Jacobus tenBroek, the late President of the National Federation of 
the Blind, analyzed white cane laws in detail and publislied his definitive work on the 
subject in a paper entitled "The Right to Live in the World: the Disabled in the Law of 
Torts." Based on this analysis of existing law, Professor tenBroek and Russell Kletzing (an 
experienced legal practitioner who is blind) developed a Model White Cane Law. It has since 
been introduced in the Legislatures of more than half of the States and has been adopted in 
whole or in part in at least thirteen States. 

The following six States have adopted the Model White Cane Law as proposed: New 
Mexico (1967); Iowa (1967); California (1968); Indiana (1969); Kansas (1969); and 
Wasliington (1969). Idaho (1969) has the Model White Cane Law minus the clause providing 


for a proclamation. Illinois (1969) has the law with the contributory negligence savings 
clause implied. Maryland (1969) has the law without the contributory negligence savings 
clause. Minnesota (1969) has the law without the contributory negligence savings clause. 
Nevada (1969) has the salient provisions of the Model Law in sliglitly different language and 
somewhat scattered among existing sections of its code. North Dakota (1967) has the law 
except that the non-discrimination clauses are limited to those using guide dogs. West 
Virginia (1969) has the Model Law without the contributory negligence savings clause. 

The National Federation of the Blind views this achievement, and rightly so, as a 
veritable civil rights bill for the blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically 
disabled. The Model White Cane Law makes it the policy of the State that these persons 
shall be encouraged and enabled to participate fully in the social and economic life of the 
State. Calling for the cessation of discrimination on the grounds of disability, the law 
declares that the blind and disabled have the same right as the able-bodied to the full and 
free use of public streets, sidewalks, conveyances, and public facihties and places of pubhc 

In tills statute the State calls upon the general citizenry to expect to see blind and 
disabled persons abroad in the community going to and from the places of their work 
and/or recreation, and to take all necessary precautions to, secure their safety. Motorists are 
required to yield the right-of-way to totally or partially blind persons carrying a 
predominantly white cane or using a guide dog, and the driver of any vehicle approaching 
such pedestrian who fails to yield the right-of-way or to take all reasonably necessary 
precautions to avoid injury to such blind pedestrian is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

One of the most significant features of the Model White Cane Law is the provision 
which declares that it shall be the policy of the State that blind persons, visually 
handicapped, and otherwise disabled persons shaU be employed in the service of the State 
and its political subdivisions, in the public schools and in all other employment supported in 
whole or in part by pubhc funds on the same teiTns and conditions as the able-bodied. 
Despite various "Hire the Handicapped" campaigns, blind and disabled persons continue to 
have difficulty in procuring meaningful employment. The enactment of the new law will 
encourage employers to modernize and make more equitable their hiring practices. 

In addition to advocating the enactment of the new law protecting the blind and 
securing their acceptance as full-fledged citizens participating in the social and economic life 
of their community, the National Federation of the Bhnd has sought in other ways to 
increase public recognition of the values symbohzed by the white cane. In 1947 it 
established the third week in May as a period for special concentration of efforts to educate 
the public concerning the hopes and aspirations of the blind and to ask their support. 
During White Cane Week, thousands of envelopes are mailed across the land enclosing a 
pamphlet emphasizing the ability of the blind to be independent. 

Although the use of the term "White Cane" in the title to this proposed state 
legislation suggests this measure deals only with motor vehicle traffic problems of the 


street-crossing blind person, in actual fact the bill is this and far, far more. The Model White 
Cane Law is, as has been said, a "Bill of Rights", not just for blind men and women or for 
less severely visually impaired persons; it is a "Bill of Rights" for all physically impaired 
Americans including the blind and visually impaired. 

Yet as a "Bill of Rights" for all disabled persons, the Model White Cane Law actually 
creates no new or novel rights or privileges for these people. Rather, it asserts that all 
physically impaired Americans already possess the same rights and privileges guaranteed by 
constitutional provision and statutory edict to physically fit Americans, to ^ Americans, 
whatever their visual acuity, whatever their physical condition. 

The Model White Cane Law declares that which already exists in the law, but is far too 
often ignored or disregarded--that a blind person, a legless or armless or deaf person, has the 
same right to live in the world, to work and travel and function in all ways just as the 
physically fit live and work and travel and function, free from myth-based limitations or 
unreasoned and unreasonable attitudes and practices that diminish or deny such disabled 
persons rights innately his as a human person and as an American citizen. 

The Model White Cane Law is necessary as enacted state legislation because blind and 
physically disabled persons so often experience public policies and public practices that 
refuse to acknowledge their rights, that deny them the chance to share fully in the privileges 
rightfully theirs as persons and citizens and not lost or lessened to them by reason of their 
physical impairment. 

"For blind persons everywhere," as Professor tenBroek once said, "the white cane is 
not a badge of difference-but a token of their equahty and integration. And for those who 
know its history and associations, tlie white cane is also something more; it is the tangible 
expression not only of mobility, but of a movement ." 

Following is the text of the Model White Cane Law, strengthened with respect to 
housing by the addition of section 7, and a section-by-section analysis which may prove 
helpful to those NFB Affiliates which plan to seek enactment of this statute in tlieir States: 


1 : It is the policy of this State to encourage and enable the blind, the visually 
handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled to participate fully in the social 
and economic life of the State and to engage in remunerative employment. 

(This section is a declaration of pubUc policy and is often important in legal 
determinations. It recognizes and proclaims the right of all blind and physically 
disabled citizens of the state to share fully and equally in all of the rights, privileges, 
and opportunities available in the state to all other citizens. This section also makes 


conclusively clear that it is the policy ot the state that blind and physically disabled 
persons are to be encouraged and enabled to participate fully in the social and 
economic life of the state; that they are to be encouraged and enabled to work and 
engage in all of the professions and business and industrial employments in the state.) 

2(a): The blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled have the 
same right as the able-bodied to the full and free use of the streets, highways, 
sidewalks, walkways, public buildings, public facilities, and other public places. 

(This provision asserts the right of blind and physically disabled persons to travel upon 
the streets and highways, to enter into and to use, just as tlie physically fit enter into 
and use, all public buildings, public facilities and any and all public places, without 
needless restraints and unjustified restrictions. For instance, refusal to admit a guide 
dog in a crowded public place would be an unreasonable denial. This section also puts 
the general public on notice that the blind and disabled are to be expected in public 

2(b):The blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled are entitled 
to full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of all common 
carriers, airplanes, motor vehicles, railroad trains, motor buses, street cars, boats or any 
other public conveyances or modes of transportation, hotels, lodging places, places of 
public accommodation, amusement or resort, and other places to which the general 
public is invited, subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and 
applicable alike to all persons. 

(This provision asserts the right of blind and physically disabled persons to unrestricted 
use of all "foiTOs of public transportation, to all manner of lodging accommodations, 
and to any and ail public facilities and activities to which the public is invited. This, 
like Section 2(a) includes a notice to the general public that blind and disabled persons 
are to be expected in public places.) 

2(c): Every totally or partially blind person shall have the right to be accompanied by a 
guide dog, especially trained for the purpose, in any of the places listed in section 2(b) 
without being required to pay an extra charge for the guide dog; provided that he shall 
be liable for any damage done to the premises or facilities by such dog. 

(This provision requires that a guide dog be admitted wherever the blind master would 
be entitled to admission as a member of the public. But this unrestricted admissibility 
of a guide dog is coupled with a liabiHty on the dog's owner for any damage caused by 
such dog. This provision not only prohibits any obvious and direct restraint upon the 
admissibility of a guide dog, but it also prohibits any hidden or indirect restraint upon 
such admissibility by specifically prohibiting the imposition of an extra charge because 
of the presence of the accompanying guide dog.) 

3: The driver of a vehicle approaching a totally or partially blind pedestrian who is 


carrying a cane predominantly white or metallic in color (with or without a red tip) or 
using a guide dog sliall take all necessary precautions to avoid injury to such blind 
pedestrian, and any driver who fails to take such precautions shall be liable in damages 
for any injury caused such pedestrian; provided that a totally or partially blind 
pedestrian not carrying such a cane or using a guide dog in any of the places, 
accommodations or conveyances listed in section 2, shall have all of the riglits and 
privileges conferred by law upon other persons, and the failure of a totally or partially 
blind pedestrian to carry such a cane or to use a guide dog in any such places, 
accommodations or conveyances shall not be held to constitute nor be evidence of 
contributory negligence. 

(This section establishes reasonable safety standards of conduct that must be followed 
by drivers of motor vehicles with reference to blind pedestrians. It also provides a 
general terminology descriptive of the cane a blind person might carry. This is made 
necessary since some courts might hold that a cane of a different than white color or a 
cane without a red tip or with a red tip different in inches from statutory provision 
fails to meet the requirements of the law, and by such reasoning, the protection of the 
law has been denied and withheld from some blind pedestrians. Tlris provision also 
eliminates the automatic "contributory negligence" doctrine that has punished the 
blind in their pursuit of independent lives and self-dependent travel upon the streets 
and roadways. The "contributory negligence" doctrine which is outlawed by this 
provision of the Model White Cane Law, developed thus: That since the law (state 
white cane law) specifies certain standards of motor vehicle operation when a driver 
sees a person with a white cane, or a guide dog, as protection to such pedestrian, that 
the blind traveller without a white cane or guide dog gives the driver no indication, no 
notice of his visual impairment Therefore, sucli person cannot claim the protection of 
the law when he fails to give such notice-and has by his caneless and/or dogless state 
removed himself from the protection of the law. However, deaf people are not held 
automatically guilty of contributory negligence because ihey carry no symbol of their 
deafness. Careless pedestrians do not have to give notice of their habitual "jay-walking" 
tendencies. Even drunkards who are struck while crossing the street are held 
contributorily negligent in a lawsuit only if this can be proven by evidence to support 
such contention. Consequently, a blind person without a cane or a guide dog should 
not be held punishable by such lack of cane or dog unless evidence can be produced to 
prove that this lack of a symbol indicating bhndness did, in fact, contribute to the 
accident to the blind pedestrian. This provision not only eliminates the punitive 
contributory negligence rule for the caneless or guide-dogless bUnd pedestrian, but it 
also eliminates this rule and prohibits its use against the blind person (without cane or 
dog) in his use of all public places, accommodations or conveyances.) 

Any person or persons, firm or corporation, or tlie agent of any person or persons, finn 
or corporation who denies or interferes with admittance to or enjoyment of the public 
facihties enumerated in section 2 or otlierwise interferes with the rights of a totally or 
partially blind or otherwise disabled person under section 2 shall be guilty of a 


(This section is the "teeth" hi the Model Wliite Cane Law! This provision declares that 
any person or business concern shall be guilty of a crime if blind or physically disabled 
persons are discriminated against or prejudiced in any way in their use of public 
transportation, public accommodations, or any other public facility or public activity 
by reason of the actions or inactions of such person or business concern.) 

5: Each year, the Governor shall take suitable public notice of October 15 as White Cane 
Safety Day. He shall issue a proclamation in which: 

(a) he comments upon the significance of the white cane; 

(b) he calls upon the citizens of the State to observe tlie provisions of the White Cane 
Law and to take precautions necessary to the safety of the disabled; 

(c) he reminds the citizens of the State of the policies with respect to the disabled 
herein declared and urges the citizens to cooperate in giving effect to them; 

(d) he emphasizes the need of the citizens to be aware of the presence of disabled 
persons in the community and to keep safe and functional for the disabled the 
streets, highways, sidewalks, walkways, public buildings, public facilities, other 
pubhc places, places of public accommodation, amusement and resort, and other 
places to which the public is invited, and to offer assistance to disabled persons 
upon appropriate occasions. 

(On October 6, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law House Joint 
Resolution 753 (P.L. 88-628: 78 Stat. 1003) which requires that each year the 
President of the United States shall proclaim October 15, "White Cane Safety Day." 
The National Federation of the Bhnd sponsored H.J. Res. 753 and worked for its 
enactment into Federal law in order that we of the organized blind might have the help 
of the first citizen of the nation in our continuing campaign to educate the general 
public about the real nature of bhndness and to enlighten all Americans about the 
competencies and capabiHties of trained and properly oriented blind people. This 
section of the Model White Cane Law would do at state level what the White Cane 
Safety Day resolution achieved at the national level--it would make the governor, the 
first citizen of the state, once each year a special pleader and advocate for the goals of 
federationism for the bhnd of the state. In addition to its educational value, tlie 
proclamation constitutes another form of public notice of the rights of the blind and 
disabled. The "each year" requirement in this provision would eliminate the need to 
request the issuance of a White Cane Safety Day Proclamation annually, for the 
provision would make annual issuance automatic.) 

6: It is the policy of this State that the blind, the visually handicapped, and the otherwise 
physically disabled shall be employed in the State Service, the service of the political 
subdivisions of the State, in the pubhc schools, and in all other employment supported 
in whole or in part by public funds on the same terms and conditions as the 


able-bodied, unless it is shown that the particular disability prevents the performance 
of the work involved. 

(At present when a blind person or a legless person in a wheelchair applies to a school 
board for a position as a teacher, the burden is upon the job applicant to convince the 
members of the school board that he can perform all of the duties as teacher, even 
though he is physically impaired. Many such apphcants have found that no matter 
what answers they may give, however sensible and conclusive the evidence of 
professional quahfication and personal capabiUties may be presented, school boards 
and other public agency potential employers of blind and physically disabled persons 
far too often persist in saying "We don't believe you can do the job!" At present, also, 
the burden of proof of proving ability to do a job applied for rests entirely upon the 
blind and physically impaired candidate for public agency employment. Section 6 of 
the Model White Cane Law would completely reverse and shift tliis burden of proof. It 
would require not just that blind or physically disabled persons prove their abihty to 
do the job applied for, but the agency administrator or personnel director would have 
to sliow ". . . that the particular disability prevents the performance of the work 
involved." This provision as state law should at least serve to give a greater number of 
blind and physically disabled persons the chance to demonstrate, by actual on-the-job 
doing, their ability to do state, county or city jobs which they seek to fill.) 

7(a): BHnd persons, visually liandicapped persons, and other physically disabled persons shall 
be entitled to full and equal access, as other members of the general public, to all 
housing accommodations offered for rent, lease, or compensation in this state, subject 
to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to all persons. 

7(b):"Housing accommodations" means any real property, or portion thereof, which is used 
or occupied or is intended, airanged, or designed to be used or occupied, as the home, 
residence or sleeping place of one or more human beings, but shall not include any 
accommodations, included within sub-section (a) or any single family residence the 
occupants of which rent, lease, or furnish for compensation not more than one room 

7(c): Nothing in this section shall require any person renting, leasing, or providing for 
compensation real property to modify his property in any way or provide a higher 
degree of care for a bhnd person, visually handicapped person, or other physically 
disabled person than for a person who is not physically disabled. 

7(d):Every totally or partially blind person who has a guide dog, or who obtains a guide 
dog, shall be entitled to full and equal access to all housing accommodations provided 
for in this section, and he shall not be required to pay extra compensation for such 
guide dog but shall be liable for any damage done to the premises by such a guide dog. 

(This is the "Open Accommodations" section of the Model White Cane Law. Under it, 
a blind person or other physically unpaired person wishing to rent or lease a place to 


live, may not be denied or discriminated against because of his blindness or physical 
disability. This provision against discrimination in obtaining a home also expressly 
provides that a blind person who has a guide dog may not be refused because he has 
such guide dog-may not be refused even though dogs or other pets are not usually 


Alco Canfield 

[Editor's Note: The following is reprinted from The White Cane , publication of the 
Washington State Association of the Bhnd.] 

The needs of blind youth are those of all youth. They include the need for acceptance, 
the need for equal opportunity, and the need for independence. Though much progress has 
been made, ignorance, misunderstanding, and intolerance prevent the realization of these 

When I speak of acceptance, I define it as the recognition of the uniqueness of each 
human being. The pedestal of inspiration as well as the pit of helplessness can seriously 
obstruct this acceptance. In certain volunteer projects in which I have been engaged, some 
persons have wanted to publicize my activity because of my bhndness. Perhaps some 
benefits can be gained from this kind of publicity, but more often than not, a super-image is 
created and is added to the great host of misconceptions which already exist. 

Several years ago, two blind students had a great deal of difficulty enrolling in the 
physical education classes at the University of Washington. These courses are required of all 
incoming Freslimen. After a great deal of persistence, they were admitted, and successfully 
completed the three required quarters. Because of their efforts, I had no difficulty taking 
P.E. I was informed at the time, however, that there was a waiver of this requirement for 
blind students. At the present time there is no waiver, but "adapted classes." Now, why 
should there be "adapted classes?" We can certainly take swimming, ice skating, and other 
courses right along with sighted students. This kind of adaptation and any kind of 
discrimination-isolation because of blindness-helps to perpetuate all of the old stereotypes 
which should have died a long time ago. The understanding that blindness is a characteristic 
and not an overwhelming limitation, will lead to greater acceptance. 

The need for equality of opportunity is also important for all youth. Recently I have 
talked with many blind students who have been denied equal opportunity in housing and 


employment because of blindness Through the efforts of State Services for the Blind, I 
obtained part-time employment as a keypunch operator. Subsequently, I have worked as a 
secretary at the King County Courtliouse. Others have not been so fortunate. 

Let me illustrate with a few examples: Last summer a student from Olympia came to 
Seattle to work. She was denied lodging at the Evangeline Hotel. The reason for this refusal? 
No one was there to read her mail. Another girl with whom I talked said, "I was refused an 
apartment last spring because of four steps by which it was reached." She also noted that, "I 
was refused a job at a jewelry store because there were stairs and the lady did not think I 
could handle gift wrapping." 

Another college student told me that he worked one summer in a sheltered workshop 
for Work Opportunities, Inc. His wage was $.12'/2 an hour. He later got a raise and made 
$.13 an hour. 

A girl in Olympia who is visually handicapped was paid a lower starting wage than 
siglited clerk stenographers. The understanding was that her wage would be raised to the 
standard amount when she proved herself. She has now worked there eighteen months 
which would seem to indicate that she had proved herself. Her wage still remains the same, 
though she is trying to cliange this. 

Perhaps the problem of part-time employment could be lessened by a training program 
in Seattle. Many students here are good typists, and only need to know a few basic essentials 
such as the correct form for business letters, how to work witli stencils, how to arrange 
carbon paper, etc. Sighted workers can learn tlie format by looking at a typed page. This 
option is not open to us. Courses that make us familiar with fundamental secretarial skills 
might create more opportunities for summer employment. 

Another very important need of youth is the need for independence. In order for us to 
be fully independent, we need mobihty training in order to travel with ease and safety just 
about anywhere. The students with whom I spoke felt that mobility should begin much 
earlier than their junior and senior years in high school. 

I have tried to outline briefly some of the problems facing blind youth. It is always 
easier to point out problems than to suggest solutions. Earlier mobility instruction and a 
program to train people for summer employment are only two possible answers to the 

The basic solution to many of these difficulties is a fundamental change in attitude 
toward blind people. The opinion that we are completely helpless or extraordinarily gifted 
must be eliminated. We are human, no more, no less. Organized action against 
discrimination, education by literature and discussion, and time are needed to bring about 
alteration of outlook. When the basic attitude changes, many of the problems will be 
resolved and no one will be speaking to you about the needs of blind youth, for our needs 
will be inseparable from those of all young people. 



I was bom in Lebanon, New Hampshire, July 27, 1918. My childhood was not unlike 
millions of other youngsters, except that I can remember even as a small boy that I could 
not play games with the other kids after dark because I just couldn't see where I was going. I 
didn't seem to be affected in the daytime, and played as much as any child. 

I received my education from schools in Lebanon and West Lebanon, graduating from. 
West Lebanon Higli School in 1937. I then worked at several jobs, filling station attendant, 
jack hammer operator, mill hand, section hand on a railroad, and construction worker. 

In 1939, through the cooperation of the Department of Education State of New 
Hampshire, I was able to attend a school for massage in Massachusetts. After graduating I 
returned to West Lebanon to look for work in my new field. I was now twenty-one and my 
sight had started to decline, but not at an alarming rate, in fact I was to hold a driver's 
Ucense for the next six years, but only drove by day. 

Sometime in 1940 I went to work in Providence, Rhode Island, at a health club, where 
I stayed until tlie war broke out in 1942, at which time two things happened, first the 
owner went bankrupt, then the health club type of business was not considered essential to 
the war effort. So I went back home and went to work in a machine shop, becoming a turret 
lathe operator. After a general layoff, I worked for a furniture store, becoming a linoleum 
salesman, and a washing machine repairman. In 1950 I went back to the machine industry 
learning to operate the universal turrets, and also becoming a cylindrical grinder operator. 
The last layoff was in 1957, and altliough when business picked up I was offered a job, I 


didn't go back because my sight had declined to the point where I could not do my previous 
work. The company was very kind to me, in fact I think they suspected that I bluffed my 
way through the physicals in the first place and they offered me a minor job which I didn't 

In 1958, my parents, my children and myself moved to a small farm where we really 
enjoyed life^ I still had enough sight to cut my own hay with a little help. We kept a cow, 
and had our own vegetables and berries. At this time I was receiving Social Security for 
myself and my children. My father was and is today blind, but he did his share and more, in 
fact he did the milkmg. 

Now comes a tale to tell: 

In December of 1960 I was visited by the Supervisor of the Division of Blind Services 
who explained that there was an opening at the State House Snack Bar in Concord, due to 
the death of the operator there. I was not very eager to go, not that I didn't want to further 
myself„and be .self-sustaining, but I had three small children in school and I wanted to see to 
their upbringing. 

The Supervisor informed that I could possibly make sixty dollars a week or better. 
Now tliis certainly wouldn't move a family to another city or support them properly. My 
father needed me, my mother was not in good health, and I should be with my children. 
The Supervisor then informed me that if I didn't accept, he could veiy well see to it that I 
would lose what income (Social Security) 1 was receiving. So I went to work in Concord. 

The rest is history; how I was summarily dismissed through the efforts of this same 
man, now called the Bureau Chief, and how with the help of the NFB 1 fought for ten 
months, until I was reinstated by order of the Attorney General, with a settlement. 

I became a member of the New Hampshire Federation of the Blind in 1963. becoming 
its President in 1966, my second term will expire in September of this year. 

That organization had its beginnings in 1954 when a small group of people met to 
discuss the blind and their problems. Out of these get-togethers the New Hampshire 
Federation of the Blind was founded. Mr. Stephen Buckley, now of Milford, New 
Hampshire, became the first president, and gave it up in 1956 only because of a tight 
schedule as he was attending the University of New Hampshire. 

The Merrimack Valley Chapter was the first chapter, to be followed by the White 
Mountain Chapter in 1957, and the Gate City Chapter in 1967. Tfte charter of affiliation 
was presented to Mr. Buckley at the National Federation of the Blind Convention in San 
Francisco in 1956. 

Th^ NHFB has been a sort of up and down movement, because of several things, not 
uncomriion to others states First, of course, there is a geographic!al problem in which it is 


very hard to get real good attendance at meetings. This, and other problems such as losing 
sight of the real goal of the movement, led to the losing of the White Mountain Chapter 
soon after our vStatc Convention up in Beihn in 1965. 

The ivvo remaining chapters have a total membership of over two hundred. We do have 
staunch supporters. One of the greatest lacks, if that is the word, is the inability to gain 
more and especially younger members, the time and means to spread out into other areas of 
the state to form new chapters, and the general education of the public of our philosophy, 
and indeed the forced subservience of our blind because of feared intimidation. 

This past year we organized our first fundraising campaign which we plan to continue 
every year in the months of November and December. While we were beset with late 
shipments, and didn't really get started until almost December, we will be in the bl.ack, and I 
think for the first year tliis is a good start. In tiie process of the campaign, we found many 
more contacts for next year. 

Our convention this year will be in Manchester, Nev/ Hampshire, in September, and we 
have found that a two day convention is necessajy to get everytliing done. We luue only one 
way to go, onward and upward. 


W. A. Reed, Jr. 

[Reprinted from the Nashville (Tennessee) Tennessean l 

A minister, whose blindness has been no handicap in the founding and expansion of a 
church and gindance of its congregation since 1940, will be honored as the church celebrates 
its Homecoming Day. 

Elder R. C. Maloy of the Alameda Christian Church will be honored by the presence of 
many persons who remember his first ministiy in Nashville at the Gay-Lea Christian Church, 
two hundred members of Alameda Street Church and others who have .seen him on 
Nashville streets since 1921. 

Maloy was born and reared here. Finishing the School for the Blind in 1916, he 
attend.ed Knoxville College and was ordained to the ministry' by the late Eider Preston 
Taylor, a church founder, banker and businessman of early Na.shville years. 

The minister has served Vine Street Christian in Knoxville as pastor, and in 1923, came 
to the pastorate of Gay-Lea Christian Church here. He served there sixteen years. In April, 


1940, he organized Alameda in the residence of Mr, and Mrs. J. V. Simmons. Later, in 1950, 
the sanctuaiy of tlie church was built at a cost of $12,000. This year, an educational 
building was added to tlie church campus at a cost of $19,000. 

The National Christian Missionary' Convention gave Maloy a service pin for fifty years 
in 1966. He was chairman of the Tennessee Christian Convention in 1935 and 1936; 
chairman of the state church department from 1957-58 and evangelist for state work during 

Maloy will give the first sermon at 1 1 a.m. Later, at 1 p.m. the congregation and 
visitors will participate in a dinner on tlie church grounds. The Rev. Jerome L Wright, 
assistant pastor of tlie First Baptist Church, Capitol Hill, will deliver a homecoming message 
at 3 p.m. 

General board chairman of Alameda Street Christian Church is Robert Drummond. 
Walter Thomas is chairman of the congregation. The homecoming exercises have been 
planned under a short theme. It is-"We've Come This Far By Faith." 


Twin Vision is tlie publishing division of the American Brotherhood for the Blind and 
is located at 18440 Topham Street, Tarzana, California 91356. The American Brotherhood 
founded its Twin Vision publishing office in 1962. 

A blind child must learn to live in a sighted world. In order to do this he must share 
every possible aspect of the sighted world. He must not be isolated from it, he must above 
all, like any sighted child, be given the opportunity to share his activities with those around 
him Like any sighted child, a bhnd child loves a storybook. He is fortunate that Braille 
malces it possible for him to read. But reading Braille is a lonely undertaking, and the blind 
child, like the sighted child, needs the warm, close relationships that come with sharing his 
reading adventures witli his parents, brothers and sisters, or friends. 

Twin Vision books were created to meet this need. A simple but unique technique of 
combining identical text in print and Braille on pages facing each otiier allows Twin Vision 
books to be read by blind and sighted together. Thus the blind child and his sighted parents 
can read beloved children's stories together. Moreover, the blind parent must not be denied 
the privilege of reading stor>'books with his sighted children. With Twin Vision books, the 
eyes of the sighted and the hand of the blind see together. 

Like a sighted child, the blind child loves a picture book. In fact, without adequate 


illustrations, a blind child has had to guess at the shape of a tree, a bird, a building, or 
countless other things beyond the reach of his hands. A unique method of producing raised 
illustrations tliat are meaningful to the blind has been developed by Twin Vision. These 
illustrations are produced in durable plastic which can be bound into books along with 
sheets of print and Braille. "The Shape of Things" Series consists of original books written 
and illustrated especially for blind children. 

Parents and educators alike have hailed Twin Vision books as a great advancement in 
the education and psychological growth of blind children, and of sighted children with bUnd 
parents. Twin Vision books are distributed free of charge throughout the United States to 
state schools for tlie blind, regional Braille libraries of the Library of Congress, blind 
children and blind parents through the Twin Vision Lending Library, institutions serving the 
blind, and schools and libraries in many foreign countries. 

The Twin Vision publishing office also provides other material to meet other needs. Its 
"Hot Line to Deaf-Blind'' is a Braille newspaper pubhshed twice a month and sent free to 
deaf-blind individuals and to libraries serving them throughout the United States. Those who 
cannot watch television, hsten to the radio or read newspapers have enthusiastically hailed 
"Hot Line" as their only current news source. 

In an effort to enable blind persons to become more aware of American traditions, 
Braille copies of great American documents are pubhshed and distributed. Braille calendars;, 
are also distributed without charge to all blind persons requesting them. 


Jack Sirard 

[Editor's Note; The following story appeared in the Burbank (California) Daily Review .] 

Contrary to popular opinion, blind persons aren't helpless. Given the opportunity, they 
can perform just as well as a sighted individual. Some can do the extraordinar,' like teaching 
school or becoming a doctor of chiropractic. Dr. J. Ray Penix has done both. Dr. Penix, 
who has been blind since the age of twelve, is assisted by his wife. Arda, who also is a 
chiropractor. Their office is at 428 E. Olive and their home is conveniently located next 

"I was born in a small town. Lead Hills, in the Arkansas Ozarks," he said. Penix was 
near-sighted at birth but his problem wasn't discovered until he was six years old. "Since it 
took a full day by buggy to get to the optometrist. I didn't get my first pair of glasses until I 
was seven," Penix added. The glasses helped for a time, but by the age of twelve a retinal 


detachment in one eye and glaucoma in tlie other caused the inevitable blindness. 

Penix attended the Arkansas State School for tlie Blind from the fourth through the 
twelftli grades. Prior to that he received his education at home because tlie sight he did have 
wasn't good enough to sustain him for an entire day at public schools. Upon graduation 
from high school Penix entered the University of Arkansas where four years later he was to 
become the university's first blind graduate. He majored in music and received two minors 
in education and Enghsli. 

"The only wa\' I could learn my lessons was to employ fellow students to read them to 
me and try to memorize as much as possible," Penix said. He added lie couldn't afford to 
cut classes and goof-off as many students did. "Many loafed during ilie scliool year and then 
crammed during final week. But 1 couldn't do that so I studied at a steady pace throughout 
the year and could relax during finals week and watch them sweat," lie said. 

Penix taught in pubhc schools in Arkansas following his graduation from college, but 
after seeing teachers fired when new politicians came into office, he decided to seek a more 
secure position. "A friend of mine, who was blind, was a chiropractor and he seemed to be 
doing all riglit for himself so I thought if others could do this then I could too." Penix said. 
Penix soon was licensed in Arkansas as a chiropractor. Penix and his wife left their native 
Arkansas in 1963 for California. "Since it's very hard for a doctor to start a practice in a 
new community, I went to work as a teacher at the school for the blind in Escondido. There 
were so many preschool blind children that braille teachers were needed. "V'hen tlie cause 
of many of the cases of blindness were discovered and the number of blind reduced I 
returned to chiropractics," he said. Dr. Penix holds a lifetime teaching credential in 
California and could return to teaching if he decided to. 

Before resuming his practice he attended the Ratiedgc School of Chiropractic and tlie 
Cleveland Chiropractic College in Los Angeles. Upon taking the California State Licensing 
examination. Dr. Peiiix scored tlie highest grade of the ninety-seven persons who took the 
test. On the practical examination, testing what a doctor can do. Dr. Penix received the 
highest score ever recorded. 

In the twenty years he lias been a doctor, Penix lias continued to go back to school to 
increase his knowledge of his profession. "I have found that while cacli school teaches the 
same basic concepts, each has its own variations in technicjues. By learning a variety of ways 
of treatment I have become a better doctor because some people respond better to different 

Dr. Penix points witli pride to his profession and the satisfaction he obtains from 
curing his patients. "The most important thing for a chiropractor is the sense of touch so 
being bhnd doesn't handicap me. Sight doesn't help one bit when feeling to realign a 
vertabrae or to relieve pressure from nerve trunks. The only problem I do encounter is 
reading the X-ray but my wife does that," he said. In fact, before she became a chiropractor 
herself in 1965, she served as her husband's X-ray technician. The two doctors work as a 


team with Arda doing the interviewing, and case history and Ray doing the manipulating 
and adjusting because of his superior strength and speed. 

Besides his work, he is active in the Burbank-Glendale area of the California Council of 
the Blind. For the past three years he has sei-ved as president of the organization. "I do what 
I can to improve the lot of the masses. I want to prove that blind persons aren't helpless and 
can do the job if they are given an opportunity," he said. 

The doctor is also an active member of the Burbank Host Lions Club, the Burbank 
Central Baptist Church and the Verdugo Hills Chiropractic Society. He is also affiliated with 
county, state and national chiropractic organizations. 

"I'm fortunate to have a roof over my head and food on the table. Throughout my life 
the people I've come in contact with believed I wasn't handicapped and have given me the 
opportunity to prove myself," he said. 


Dave Hough 

[Reprinted from The Stars and Stripes ] 

Tachikawa AB, Japan-Nyal McConoughey clutched the phone and, turning toward it 
with eyes sightless since 1954, said, "I can see as well as anybody." Then, without looking, 
the forty-nine-year-old administrative assistant for community relations at Tachikawa-the 
only totally blind U. S. federal employee in Japan-started to dial. 

"You know," he said, "I used to do this until I realized it made people uneasy. I've 
found half of being bhnd is learning to act normal so those watching won't feel 
uncomfortable. Now I make a point to look at the phone before dialing." 

He put the receiver down. "I interviewed a girl for a job once. She saw my dark glasses 
and relaxed, slouched down in her chair and propped her head against the wall. I saw it. She 
didn't get the job." 

On McConoughey's wall there's a placard. It reads: "The mind has a thousand eyes 
with whicii to understand tlie meaning of a challenge or the clasp of a liand." 

McConoughey's hand shot out in the direction of a new voice in the office. He didn't 
just shake the hand, which belonged to a prospective English teacher interested in one of 
McConoughey's community relations programs. He held it, felt it, learned it. After the 


hands were separated and the voice gone, McConoughey sat back and smiled. "Of course I 
can see," he said. 

Challenges? To McConoughey, the greatest problems in being blind are the lack of 
mobility and the inability to read. "That's why the Tachikawa Council for the Betterment 
of the Japanese Blind started a talking book library," he said. 

The Council, organized by McConoughey in 1960, began by distributing braille 
typewriters, "then shifted to the talking books," he said. "Braille is necessary to take notes 
and label things but recordings are much more practical for books. Nothing like this had 
been done in Japan before so we had to start from scratch by designing a tape recorder. We 
either gave away or sold at cost five hundred, just to get enough into circulation to make 
people aware of their potential." 

He says this resulted in other progress. "How the Japanese government lets talking 
book tapes go postage free. They've knocked the tax off recorders, and I believe they're 
going to start contributing in some way to tlie price. Also the police have made white canes 
available free. There are problems though. The canes, for example, are too short for probing 
and there aren't any schools to teach the blind to use them." 

He fingered a braille shorthand machine on his desk. "I'd like to start a clinic here in 
Japan," he said. "There is no reason why the blind can't be productive." McConoughey 
stopped. "No. Prejudices," he said. "Prejudices all too often prevent us from overcoming 
our handicaps. It's particularly difficult in Japan. Traditionally the blind have been 
restricted to playing the koto (a classical stringed instrument), learning kyu (the ancient 
Chinese cure-all art of burning medicine on the skin), or becoming a masseur." 

But McConoughey added that some Japanese such as Kazuo Homo, have overcome the 
barriers. "He founded the Japanese Braille Library and has probably done more for the 
blind in this country than anybody else." 

Using the desk to support liis six-foot frame, McConoughey stood up. It wasn't far 
from this place that fifteen years ago he suffered detached retina of both eyes while driving 
to work. "It was a freak," he said. "I didn't even realize what was happening. I got to the 
gate and couldn't see the guard. He had to bang on the side of my car to get me to stop. By 
the end of the day I was totally blind, yet to this day doctors don't know what caused it." 

He was working as a Department of the Air Force civilian then. "I was married, had a 
family and a house," he said. "I returned to the States for surgery. It didn't help. Then I 
fought with the Air Force to get my old job back. They wouldn't even consider it." In 
1957, McConoughey finally retumed~on trial. "Before I came back," he recalled, "I went to 
.1 j(ate-ruii rehabiUtation ntcr in Ohio. They refused to accept me because I wouldn't 
proini.;e to stay there and bocoiae Uieir ward." 

McConoughey reached Tor his cane and turned to leave. "I understand they've tried the 


first human eye transplant," he said. "It wasn't successful but firsts rarely are. You know, 
we're making a photo album at home. Someday I'm going to see it. I mean really see it." 




Arthur R. Vinsel 

[Reprinted from the Costa Mesa (California) Daily Pilot ] 

Lying is a sin, but he was only fourteen when the boy destined for the ministry fibbed 
his way into the U. S. Marines and was shot up on Iwo Jima, while his sophomore class 
buddies studied colored pins in war maps back at home. 

Returning to the states, he later enrolled in a Bible college and served five more 
years-at combat with sin in the Baptist service of the Lord-then became a policeman, 
dedicated to the laws of man. 

James N. Henry, forty, is in college again and fighting again, now the victim of an 
enemy whose origin and method of attack is a mystery. One night in 1966 he noticed 
difficulty in focusing his binoculars while watctiing so-called Living Pictures in the famed 
Laguna Beach Festival of the Arts, but it was not a mechanical malfunction. Three months 
later, Henry was blind, a victim of optic neuritis, confined to a terrifying new world in 
which damaged nerve endings created grotesque, LSD-like distortion of light and images. 

"At first I was reaUy fouled up," he says. "When your eyes are first going, you see 
weird faces and strange lights coming at you, caused as the little nerve endings atrophy," 
says Henry. "When you've always been in good physical shape and very active, it makes it 
even more psychologically terrifying," added the husky veteran who put in eight years in 
two separate Marine Corps enlistments. 

New Year's Day of 1 967 finally found him disabled and he began a series of stints in 
Veterans' Administration hospitals, training centers for the handicapped and Services for the 
Blind, Inc., Santa Ana. 

"It takes quite a while to learn," says Henry, who now attends Chapman College in 
Orange, recording classroom discussions to be rewritten later in Braille and supplemented by 
textbook recordings. He maintains a B average after completing his lower division courses at 
Orange Coast College and expects to graduate in June, 1970 continuing on for master's 
degree or plunging right into social work. 

A new career is always a challenge for Henry, once a fundamentalist Baptist minister. 


then a Wyoming Highway Patrolman, Cheyenne, Wyoming, Police Depai'tment juvenile 
bureau officer, Marine Corps criminal intelligence specialist, and welding supply house 

Optical experts say his blindness could have been due to a virus, but they do not know 
the fairly rare disease's true cause, and say it is worse in his case than for most \ictims. 

"I can see liglit and darkness with my left eye and occasionally I can tell iinages, but 
most of the time it's nothing," he says. 

"Some days I get up and tliink 'Wow', it's getting better, and the next day I'm just like 
I was before," he continues. 

"I've always been in pretty good physical condition-that hurt a lot," says Heniy wlio 
goes dancing with Iiis second wife, Kay, Saturday nights at the Moose Lodge in Santa Ana. 

"I don't even bump into people too much," adds the big, friendly man. "This is the 
start of the third year I've been blind," he says, "I even learned how to play blind golf at the 
Veterans' Service Center in Palo Alto." 

Then a subtle drop could be heard in his tone, up to that point the enthusiastic 
conversation of a man preparing for a career in helping other people witli other kinds of 
handicaps: "But I just don't get as much of a kick out of golf anymore." 


Donald C. Capps 

A highly enthusiastic membership of the Columbia Aurora Club of tlie Blind attended 
an exciting kickoff banquet at the Aurora Center on Saturday evening, January 10, which 
officially launched the campaign for the expansion and buDding program of the Center. It 
was just ten years ago, in November, I960, when the first kickoff luncheon was held which 
led to the erection of the present Aurora Center building. However, because of a steady 
increase in Aurora activities, programs and membership, including full-time operation of the 
Center since October. 1968, the present Aurora Center facility has become inadequate. The 
program of the kickoff banquet on Saturday evening, January 10, has to be ranked among 
top Aurora successes. There was an outpouring of enthusiastic support and excitement as 
plans for the expansion of the Center were unveiled. Donald Capps, Chairman of the Board 
of Trustees of the Aurora Center, served as master of ceremonies at the banquet, and 
selected from the Center's tape library the tape of the dedication of the Center nine years 
ago, and played the song, "Bless This House" so beautifully done by Lois Boltin 


accompanied at the organ by Marshall Tucker. This beautiful selection, which brought back 
so many pleasant memories, very aptly describes the blessings the Aurora Center has 
enjoyed. Plans call for the addition of 1 180 square feet which, together with the present 
structure, will give the Aurora Center floor space of just over 3400 square feet. The new 
addition is estimated to cost approximately $15,000. 

During the kickoff banquet, tlie group heard from the enthusiastic team captains who 
have accepted primary, but certainly not exclusive responsibility for guiding the new 
building program to a successful conclusion. The team captains are: Mrs. Catherine 
Morrison, Dr. Fred L. Crawford, W. F. Young, McDonald Hancock, Francis M. Stanton, 
Vertis Rheuark, Marshall Tucker, Jim Coli man, Billy Potter, and Donald Capps, who will 
serve as chairman. As the team captains spoke in glowing terms of their complete approval 
of the building program, their vocal support was matched by their financial support with 
generous personal pledges. Soon they were jomed by many other Aurorans who made 
generous pledges of financial support. The tremendous response was unprecedented and was 
a moving demonstration of love and devotion to an organization which has had its share of 
loyal membership support. The following is a list of those who have made pledges: Marshall 
Tucker, Dr. Fred L. Crawford, Billy Potter, McDonald Hancock, Catherine Morrison, 
Donald Capps, Jessie Swygert, Edsel Doyle, Irene Hudson, J. C. Hall, Mildred Griser, Isabell 
Prentiss, Charles Simmons, Mr. and Mrs. Joe Goodman, Mr. and Mrs. Vertis Rheuark, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Sloan McManus. 

Before the evening's festivities were concluded, funds in excess of $4000 had been 
received or pledged. In addition to contributions and pledges by Aurorans, a check of $200 
was received from Hubert H. Smith, II, son of Mr. Hubert E. Smith, founder and president 
of Ways and Means for the Blind, Inc., Augusta, Georgia, whose request is that this 
contribution be used in connection with the expansion of the Smitli Memorial office which 
is in loving memory of Mr. Hubert H. Smith, grandfather of Hubert H. Snith, II, and father 
of Hubert E. Smith. The contribution was also made in appreciation of the outstanding 
service rendered the Aurora Center by Mr. Allan Mustard who is Chairman of the Advisory 
Board of the Aurora Center and the Executive Vice-President of S. C. Electric and Gas 
Company, which is also the employer of Mr. Hubert H. Smith, II.' This $4000 plus also 
includes a pledge equal to 15 per cent of the total cost of the expansion program, but the 
name of the benefactor will not be made public until a later date. The present campaign is 
more or less of a private nature restricted to the membership with a public campaign slated 
for late spring. All Aurorans are given brochures which describe in detail the expansion 
program and are to be used in tlieir private solicitations. In appreciation and recognition of 
unselfish Auroran support upon completion, the expanded Aurora Center will feature what 
has been designated as the "Aurora Hall of Fame". It will consist of a plaque some five feet 
square which will have a background of felt and framed in gold, and the names of all 
Aurorans who either contribute $50 or raise $50 for the building program will appear on 
tMs plaque in raised bronze letters. It is hoped that every Auroran throughout the state will 
qualify for the Aurora Hall of Fame which will furnish a lifetime of deserved recognition for 
tliose making the sacrificial effort. 



4604 Briarwood Drive 

Sacramento, California 95821 

Telephone 487-2427 


Nature of Scholarship 

The Howard Brown Rickard Scholarship, administered by the 
National Federation of the Blind, is to be awarded each year to legally 
blind university students studying for a professional degree as speci- 
fied below. Scholarships may vary from $250 to $1, 250 per year. 
Payments will be made, one -half at the beginning of the fall and 
spring semesters, or one-third at the beginning of each of three 

This scholarship was established by a bequest of Thomas E. 
Rickard in honor of his father, Howard Brown Rickard. 

Who is Eligible 

Any legally blind university student in the professions of law, 
medicine, engineering, architecture, and the natural sciences, includ- 
ing undergraduates in these fields. 

How to Apply 

Fill out completely the attached application and mail to 
Russell Kletzing, Chairman, Rickard Scholarship Committee, National 
Federation of the Blind, 4604 Briarwood Drive. Sacramento, California 
95821, by June 1. 



Applicant's Full Name_ 

Aee Sex 



City State Zip Code 

Home Address 

(Permanent) Street 


City State Zip Code 

High School Attended City_ 

CoUej^e Now Attending City 

Number of Units Completed by End of Present Term 

Colleges Previously Attended: (Indicate the year you attended college and total 
number of units completed at each college. ) 

From To Units 

From To Units 

Major Subject 

List naiTie and amount of any scholarships you have received or are receiving: 

Attach the following: 

1. Transcripts from all colleges attended. (If you are entering college, attach 
high school transcript.) 

2. A stateiTient in 250 words of your reason for applying for this scholarship and 
how it will assist you to achieve a professional goal including, if you wish, 
information about your financial situation. 

Date Signature 

Make sure all spaces are filled in and mail application by June 1 to: 

Russell Kletzing, Chairman 
Rickard Scholarship Committee 
National Federation of the Blind 
4604 Briarwood Drive 
Sacrai-nento, California 95821 


Tlic A.A.WB Western Rejiion Conference will be held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, 
Hollywood. California from Sepi.enibei 25 to 27, 1970. Participants will include 
professional and volunteer workers for the visually handicapped in the Western United 
States and Canada. Beginning with 1970, the national conventions of the American 
Association of Workers for the Blind will be hckl once eveiy two years. In the intei-vening 
years, conferences will be held on a regional basis with the aim of fostering more frequent 
and meaningful exchange of ideas amongst educators and rehabilitation workers concerned 
with the visually handicapped person. 

s): :|: * * * * 

Our faithful correspondent from the Progressive Blind of Missouri, Gwen Ritlgers. 
reminds all that that organization's Annual Convention will be held at the Aladdin Hotel in 
Kansas City from April 3 through April 5, 1970. 


A Harvard University opthalmologist recently stated that between 5 and 10 million 
people, most of them inhabitants of underdeveloped nations, are totally or partially blind 
from diseases of the cornea caused by bacterial or viral infections, fungi, chemical burns or 
other injuries. But whatever the direct cause, the basic reason for the resulting blindness is 
"enzyme action." That is to say, when the surface layer of the cornea is damaged by any 
cause, the injured cells begin releasing the enzymes that "digest" the cornea itself, causing 
small ulcers. These ulcers, if not stopped, v/ill spread and eventually perforate the cornea, 
causing blindness or greatly obscured vision. 

A recent report by the California Assembly Committee on Health and Welfare charged 
that the State's welfare policies help perpetuate the poverty cycle. The Committee was 
particularly critical of the Aid to Families witli Dependent Children program which it 
described as woefully inadequate to meet tlic food requirements of the poor. There is 
mounting evidence that hundreds of thousands of California children live in families with 
incomes so low that maintaining an adequate diet is at best precarious and all too often 
impossible. The Committee recommended an increase in maximum AFDC grants to meet 
every child's minimum nutrition needs through a combination of welfare aid and food 

Harold Reagan of the Kentucky Federation of the Blind reports that Bob Whitehead, 


the organization's President, recently suffered a very severe heart attack. All of us wish for 
Bob the best in this, one of his greatest battles. 

Lyle Neff, Recording Secretary of the Colorado Federation of the Blind assures us that 
blind persons do have fun at winter sports. Carl Coleman, President of the Colorado Springs 
Council, and his family spent four days at the Conklin Ranch above Kremmhng, Colorado. 
Carl started the New Year in ratlier a novel fashion. He rode a ski-doo behind one ridden by 
Jack Conklin. Jack went ahead some fifty yards and Carl stood in the stirrups of the second 
ski-doo, head above the windshield, without any head covering, so that he could judge by 
hearing Jack's motor above the noise of his owrf motor. Away they went, over the ridge, 
around the feed yards, down across the hay meadow, across the reservoir, a distance of 
several miles at a speed of about thirty miles per hour. Carl, who is totally blind, 
recommends this sport which offers a lot of challenge. 

»({ ;f- J(( * s(c j(c 

Active Handicapped is the name of a new bi-monthly magazine being launched by Roy 
I. Smith. The magazine plans to cover every handicapped area including the blind, deaf, and 
retarded. The founder was in a deep-sea diving accident eight years ago that left him 
paralyzed from the chest down. Today he has regaijied feeling down to his waist. Although 
he is confined to a wheel chair, he has managed a successful fiber glass business. The Active 
Handicapped Magazine is published at 528 Aurora Avenue, Metairie, Louisiana. 

The U. S. Office of Education announced that a National Center for Education 
Research and Development in Early Education of Handicapped Children has been 
established at the University of Oregon, Eugene. At the Oregon Center, researchers will take 
a new tack in defining, diagnosing, and teaching liandicapped children. Initially, the research 
will involve youngsters aged 4 to 6 with hearing, visual, mental, or language deficiencies, or 
behavior problems. Later efforts will be aimed at younger children. 

Some federally-financed lawyers believe their increasing courtroom successes on behalf 
of the poor has brought on attacks from community business and political leaders and 
created friction with their legal brethren. But the federal authorities are continuing to back 
the program despite opposition on the local level. These lawyers challenge government 
agencies, laws, businesses and charities, when such individuals and agencies allegedly 
discriminate against the poor who otherwise couldn't afford legal representation. This Legal 
Ser^/ice Program of the Office of Economic Opportunity recently survived a rough test in 
Congress. The Senate passed an amendment, offered by Senator George Murphy of 
California, which would give any governor the power to veto any legal service program in his 


own State. The House refused to go along and the program remained in the control of the 
Federal Government. 

Tapes for the Blind, Inc., of 12007 S. Paramount Boulevard, Downey, California is 
sponsored by the Downey Lions Club. These magnetic tapes of high quality are being used 
in a variety of applications. Typical uses include education, skills development, 
entertainment, and correspondence. 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ :ii 

America's first eye bank was founded 30 years ago in Daly City, California and has 
since been instrumental in providing sight to tliousands in this country and Canada. One of 
the original founders of the eye bank, G. H. K. Hanson, still works for the organization. The 
Dawn Society Eye Bank files now contain the names and "pledges" of more than 7,300 
persons who want to donate their eyes upon death to the Dawn Society. Between the Dawn 
Society and the University of Cahfornia Medical Center there are some 50,000 eyes pledged, 
and it is estimated that tliere are double tliat number of people waiting to receive them. 

The General Secretary of the Kerala Federation of the Blind, India, reports that Mr. E. 
V. Joseph, Welfare Officer for the Handicapped of Kerala State, is going to Canada on an 
extended trip. He will be away undergoing a training course in Administration and 
RehabiUtation at the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Toronto, and the Iowa 
Commission for the Blind, Des Moines. Funds to underwrite the trip are made available by 
Lions Clubs in Canada and the American Brotherhood for the Blind. Mr. Joseph was the 
founder and first President of the Kerala Federation of the Blind. 

A Massachusetts state legislative study commission recently recommended that the 
State Welfare Department increase monthly welfare budgets by $20, and establish a 10-year, 
$100 million program to provide 100,000 new housing units for elderly and low-income 
families. The commission pointed out that since welfare families are now living in 
substandard private housing, the public is really maintaining slums with its welfare dollars. 

A 10 per cent cost-of-living increase in pubUc assistance benefits was recommended by 
Governor Rockefeller of New York in his annual message to the New York State. 
Legislature. "The State Board of Social Welfare," he said, "has recommended a 10 per cent 
cost-of-living increase in pubhc assistance to assure that assistance payments continue to 
provide an adequate basis of support for individuals and families in need. The Board has also 


recommended tlie establishment of state-wide standards of public assistance. I support these 
recommendations and will submit budgetary and legislative proposals to carry them out." 

:):;{:>(: ^ ^ 

A bhnd woman who said her guide dog was ordered out of a restaurant in Oklahoma 
City filed a $1 10,000 damage suit. She said she entered the restaurant, ordered food, and 
tlien sat in a booth. Her guide dog was with her and someone ordered her and her dog out of 
tlie cafe. She alleges that the humiliation aggravated a pre-existing nervous condition. 

In Alicante, Spain four special traffic lights for blind persons have been put in 
operation and officals say they are the first in tlie world. The liglits, which flash the usual 
red, yellow and green for the siglited, are equipped with a carillon which emits music three 
seconds after tlie green light goes on. The first audio traffic lights have been set up in the 
area of the local headquarters of the National Blind People's Association. 

Retired industrialist J. Winston Johns of Charlottesville, Virginia has been blind for 17 
years. He recently made a $300,000 grant to the College of William and Mary for the 
collection of materials on colonial history. Johns, 81-year-old retired president of a 
Pittsburgli coal company, recently chartered the Virginia Tnist for Historic Preservation 
which will promote interest and education in Virginia history. 

*.+ **** 

James R. Single, a Bethesda, Maryland computer research specialist who has been blind 
since he was 15, has been selected as one of the ten outstanding young men for 1969 by the 
national Jaycees. Single is chief of the heuristics laboratory in the Division of Computer 
Research and Technology of the National Institutes of Health. The Jaycees said that Single, 
35, "refused to allow the pennanent loss of his siglit to act as a serious handicap" and went 
on to receive his bachelor's, master's and doctor's degrees with near-perfect grades. Single's 
research in computer science has gained world renowned recognition in its field. Single lives 
with his wife and five children in Bethesda. 


The Hadley School for the Blind, Winnetka, Illinois, is now accepting enrollments for a 
new and unique home study course called First Aid Without Fear. Based on a specially 
written textbook the course is unique because it is the first ever designed to teach first aid 
by mail to students who are blind. The fourteen lessons are offered in Braille and on tape. 
Instead of using visual cues in diagnosis and treatment as most texts do, the Hadley lessons 
teach the student how 'lie .senses of touch, smell, hearing, and foresight can be substitutes 


for eyesight. From sunstroke to frostbite, from liiccouglis to heart attack, t!ie text covers a 
wide variety of topics including bums, wounds, bites, poisonings, fractures, and siiock. Tlie 
moufii-to-mouth method of artificial respiration is presented. Other sections deal with fire 
prevention, home safety, and first aid equipment. 

Clyde E. Ross, long time leader in tlie organized blind movement in Ohio, passed away 
suddenly on .lanuary 16, ! 970. At tJie time of his death. Clyde was President of the Summit 
County Society of the Blind and a member of the Ohio Commission for the Blind. He liad 
been President of the Ohio Council of the Blind for 14 years and at one time was Second 
Vice President of the National Federation of the Blind. 





Conducted and prepared 

By a team of specialists of the 

National Federation of the Bhnd 

At the request of the 

House of Representatives of the 

Hawaii State Legislature 

Submitted February 15, 1970 




1. Introduction 4 

2. The Statutes 6 

3. Social and Statistical Data 6 

4. Rules and Regulations 8 

5. Conclusions and Recommendations 10 



1. Introduction 18 

2. Background 18 

3. The Statutes 21 

4. The State Plan 26 

5. The Vocational Rehabilitation Program in Operation 35 

6. The Vending Stand Program .^ 41 

7. Conclusions and Recommendations 42 


1. Introduction 48 

2. School for the Deaf and Blind 48 

3. Program of Special Education 51 

4. Kokua: University Student Semce 53 

5. Teacher Training 54 


1. Library for the Blind 56 

2. Talking Book Service 58 

3. Transcribing Services Unit 60 



I. Proposed Amendments to Aid to the Blind 66 

II. Model White Cane Law 67 

III. Proposed Amendment on Teacher Training 69 

IV. Eye of the Pacific Guide Dogs, Inc 69 

February 15, 1970 

The Honorable Tadao Beppu 
Speaker, House of Representatives 
Hawaii State Legislature 
State Capitol 
Honolulu, Hawaii 

Dear Mr. Speaker: 

May I respectfully submit herewith the report of the National Federation of the Blind 
upon the p-rograms for the blind in the State of Hawaii. 

The present report is the product of a comprehensive sui-vey of Hawaii's public 
programs serving the blind, as conducted by the National Federation of the Blind upon the 
invitation and request of the House of Representatives of the Hawaii State Legislature, by 
House Resolution 258 approved on May 23, 1969. 

Our work has been greatly facilitated by the wholehearted cooperation and assistance 
received from your office, from other legislators, from key personnel of various agencies 
administiering programs for the bhnd in Hawaii, and from civic leaders and private citizens 
too numerous to mention. Particular appreciation should be expressed for the cooperation 
of the following: Mr. Howard Miyake, House Majority Leader and Chairman of the Policy 
Committee of the House of Representatives; Mr. Emilio Alcon, Chairman of the Public 
Institutions Committee of the House of Representatives; Mr. William G. Among, Director of 
Social Services; Dr. Walter B. QuisenbeiTy, Director of Health; and Mr. Ralph Kiyosaki, 
Superintendent of Education. 

The five members of the Survey Team, who worked together in Hawaii from November 
9 to November 23, 1969, especially wish me to extend their appreciation to you for the 
generous provision of office facilities and equipment in the State Capitol during the period 
of their investigations. The members of the Survey Team are: Chainnaji, Mr. Perry 
Sundquist, Editor of The Braille Monitor and formerly Chief of the Division for the Blind of 
the California Department of Welfare; Dr. Floyd Matson, Professor of American Studies at 
the University of Hawaii; Mr. John Taylor, Assistant Director in Charge of Field Operations 
at the Iowa Commission for the Blind; Mr. Kenneth Hopkins, Director of the Idaho 
Commission for the Bhnd; and Mrs. Florence Grannis, Assistant Director in Charge of 
Library and Social Services at the Iowa Commission for the Bhnd. 

The Survey Team has brought to the study professional qualifications and expert 
knowledge of programming for the blind. They also have brought intimate personal 
experience with blindness and a reflection of the commitments and convictions of the 
organized blind movement as rhanifested in the National Federation of the Blind. 

Yours sincerely. 

Kenneth Jemigan, 


On May 23, 1969, the House of Representatives of the Hawaii State Legislature 
enacted House Resolution 258 requesting the National Federation of the Blind to conduct a 
comprehensive study of Hawaii's programs for the blind. The resolution noted the facts that 
the NFB. "a nonprofit private organization comprised of blind members, is organized to 
promote programs for the best interests for all the bhnd," and that "an adequate program is 
essential for the needs and welfare of our blind citizens." 

A Survey Team of five members-all highly qualified by professional competence-was 
subsequently appointed by Kenneth Jernigan, President of the National Federation of the 
Bhnd, and the study was commenced in the fall with the prehminary gathering of 
documents and materials in the State by the Team's resident member. The other four 
members of the Survey Team arrived in Hawaii to carry out the study during the two weeks 
between November 9 and November 23, 1969. The members are: 

Chairman: Mr. Perry Sundquist, of Sacramento, California, whose career in welfare and 
educational programs serving the bhnd spans more than thirty years, much of that time as 
Chief of the Division for the Blind of California's Department of Social Welfare. He is 
presently Editor of The Braille Monitor , one of the nation's most influential publications in 
the field of blindness. 

Dr. Floyd Matson, of Honolulu, Hawaii, a Professor of American Studies at the 
University of Hawaii and a noted scholar in the field of work with the bhnd. He is the 
author of numerous articles and monographs on problems of blindness and co-author of the 
consulting editor for three national professional journals and is currently serving as President 
of the American Association for Humanistic Psychology. 

Mr. John Taylor, of Des Moines, Iowa, Assistant Director in Charge of Field Operations 
of the Iowa State Commission for the Bhnd. His experience spans more than twenty years in 
programs for the bhnd including teaching, administration, rehabilitation and consultative 

Mr. Kenneth Hopkins, of Boise, Idaho, Director of the Idaho Commission for the 
Blind. His pioneering work and innovative techniques in the establishment of the Idaho 
Commission have gained him national recognition as one of the most effective young state 
administrators in the field today. 

Mrs. Florence Grannis, of Des Momes, Iowa, Assistant Director in Charge of Library 
and Social Services at the Iowa Commission for the Bhnd. Generally recognized as the 
outstanding authority in library work for the blind today, she has served as Chainnan of the 

Roundtable on Services to the Blind of tlie American Library Association and as President 
of the Library and Publishing Section of the American Association of Workers for the Blind. 
A prohfic author in the areas of hbrary and educational services. Mrs. Grannis is presently 
Chairman of the National Book Selection Committee. Division for the Blind and Physically 
Handicapped, Library of Congress. 

The major programs and services for the blind in the State of Hawaii today are broadly 
subsumed within the areas of pubUc assistance (Aid to the Blind), vocational rehabilitation, 
education and library services for the blind. With regard to these and other pubhc programs, 
the survey drew upon all available sources of information. The basic statutory provisions 
were studied which provide the legal foundations for the programs of economic aid, 
vocational rehabilitation, vending stands, and related activities. The administrative rules and 
regulations, public assistance and rehabilitation plan material as approved by the Federal 
Government, staff memoranda and other staff communications, correspondence between 
State and Federal officials, minutes of various boards and agencies, and numerous 
Department of Social Services statistical, fiscal and general reports were all reviewed. 
Program directors and other key administrative personnel were interviewed. Meetings and 
conversations were held with parents of blind children, vocational rehabilitation clients, 
recipients of Aid to the Blind, blind college and liigh school students, vending stand 
operators, members and leaders of the Hawaii Federation of the Blind, and many other 
individuals in the community. 

The case records of all blind aid recipients and of blind vocational rehabilitation clients 
were read, including denied and discontinued cases. The case record yielded the social 
background of each client, the caseworker's evaluation of his circumstances and needs, the 
services extended to him, and the agency plans, if any, for medical, social and economic 
rehabihtation. Blind persons receiving state services, and those to whom such services had 
been denied or from whom they had been witlidrawn, were interviewed as to the scope and 
nature of services actually received by them, their needs, resources, plans and hopes for 
rehabilitation and self-support, and their attitudes towards administrative officials and 
caseworkers. Thus it was possible to measure the manual and plan materials against the 
statutes, the operational administration against the formal materials, and the aids and 
services actually received against the needs of the blind. 

This survey report is not Umited to a description of existing programs for the blind in 
Hawaii; it is also an evaluation of their quality and effectiveness, as measured by appropriate 
professional and philosophical standards. Those standards are embodied in the persons of 
the Survey Team members-one of whom is totally blind, two of whom are partially bhnd, 
and all of whom are veteran participant-observers of the nation-wide movement of the 
organized bhnd. It is that movement, institutionalized in the National Federation of the 
Blind, which provides the basis for the philosophic orientation underlying the present study. 
The National Federation of the BUnd, founded in 1940. is an organization of the blind 
themselves with affiliated statewide groups of blind people in 41 states and the District of 
Columbia-among them the Hawaii Federation of the Blind. From the outset the NFB has 
been committed to the proposition that the blind are normal individuals who cannot see; 

that their major handicaps are social rather than physical, and that with proper opportunity 
and, preparation they are capable of full equality, integration and participation in the affairs 
and careers of their society. It is from this conviction-confirmed and validated by the 
experience of the past thirty years-that the fundamental criteria for the evaluation of 
policies and programs serving the blind of Hawaii have developed. 



1. Introduction 

Any evaluation of a program of public assistance for the blind can only be made in 
terms of the mooern approaches to rhe nature and problems of blindness. 

Blindness is both a pli>sical disability and a social and economic handicap. The 
physical disability is lack of sight, and the things which it bars one from doing-until through 
stimulation and training the blind person himself overcomes in a large measure this physical 
limitation. The social and economic handicap of blindness stems from the attitude of others 
toward the blind-the idea of total disability which has survived from ancient times Eyesight 
is too often confused with abihty. As a result, blind men and women have often been 
excluded from the main channels of life and livelihood. This stereotype of regarding all 
blind persons as individuals lacking normal abilities often results in an attitude of defeatism 
on the part of the bUnd person himself. This is a real problem with which all must deal. 
When one is blind, only eyesight is gone: all else remains. 

It is a plain fact that "the blind" are persons, normal human beings, endowed with the 
ordinary' range of aptitudes and appetites, wits and wants, excellences and eccentricities. 
The blind are neither especially condemned nor especially commended by nature, neither 
mentally deficient nor divinely gifted with second sight to replace the first. They are 
individuals. All they have in common that other human beings do not have is that they 
cannot see. 

RehabiUtation in its broad and perhaps truest sense may be defined as the restoration 
of the individual to the fullest possible measure of health, u.sefulness. and satisfaction. To 
attain this goal. Aid to the Blind must be so geared in its administration as to assist blind 
men and women to achieve physical, social and economic adjustments thus reducing 
dependency and enriching the lives of these needy persons through full integration into 

In order to assist bhnd persons to decrease dependency through the administration of 
an Aid to the Blind program, the individual recipient must be actively encouraged in his 
inward growth-and to that extent, and proportionately, outward dependency will be 
decreased. A sound public assistance program for the blind must be geared to the provision 
of security, opportunity, and hope. 

In essence there are three steps in the process: First, there must be imparted to the 
appHcant or recipient of Aid to the Bhnd a feeling of safety stemming from his knowledge 
that there is basic support, that there exists a reasonably adequate amount of money with 
which to purchase the bare necessities of life-but also, and equally important, that this aid 
is received without impairment of the dignity of the individual, that he is accepted as a 
person and is respected as such. This awareness will impart a feeling of belonging, 


acceptance, and self-respect. It is security. Second, in the actual administration of Aid to the 
Blind, steps should be taken to assure the apphcant/recipient an opportunity for 
self-development; a chance to be busy, to eam a hvelihood, to walk around the block alone, 
to go to a gathering and be treated as just another human being-in short, the chance to 
experience the thrill of normal living This is opportunity. Third, it is vitally important to 
help the individual come to the realization that his efforts will result in the reward of greater 
independence. This is hope. 

Only by gearing the administration of Aid to the Blind to such ends can the self-care 
and self-support goals written into title X of the Social Security Act in 1956, and the service 
amendments of 1962, find adequate implementation. In the words of a distinguished scholar 
in this field : 

It will mean that public assistance for the blind has finally emerged from the 
medieval hentage of the poor laws-with their niggardly philosophy of the means 
test, the enforcement of relatives' responsibility, and individual need individually 
determined-into the modern atmosphere appropriate to a free and prosperous 
society; a climate in which the needs of dignity and decency, of economic 
independence and social interdependence, are recognized alongside the primeval 
need of shelter and subsistence. The outmoded philosophy of aid was the product 
of an economy of scarcity, and reflected a pessimistic and despairing view of the 
capacities of the handicapped and needy; the new philosophy is the product of 
our economy of abundance, and reflects the confident view of the world's most 
powerful and productive Nation that all of its citizens should be guaranteed a fair 
opportunity to prove their worth and make their way-in short, to attain the goals 
of self-care and self-support. 

In this survey of public assistance for the blind, an attempt has been made to 
effectuate a realistic appraisal of the actual operation of the program, as established within 
the legal framework of both the Revised Statutes of Hawaii and the Social Services Manual 
of the Department of Social Services. The program has been evaluated in the light of 
modern concepts as to the nature and problems of bhndness, and a study of the case record 
of every person receiving Aid to the Bhnd in the State of Hawaii. 

This report on the public assistance program for the blind wUl, almost inevitably, stress 
those areas needing improvement-since the primary purpose is to be of some assistance to 
the State of Hawaii in its desire to further the welfare of its needy blind citizens. In fairness 
to those devoted men and women who are the employees of the Department of Social 
Services, it must be pointed out that they are doing an outstanding job when one considers 
such formidable handicaps as the markedly restrictive regulations under which they labor. 
This study would not have been possible without the constructive help afforded by the 
Department of Social Services, Special appreciation is due to Mr. William G. Among, 
Director of the Department, and to Mr. Edwin Tam, Administrator of the Division of PubHc 
Welfare, both of whom gave generously of their time and made available most of the 
material upon wliich this report is based. 

1 . The late Professor Jacobus tenBroek of the University of Cahfornia. 

2. The Statutes 

The Revised Statutes of Hawaii, Chapter 346, which governs the granting of pubUc 
assistance, is minimal in detail-one might even say skeletal--and offers little guidance and 
few ground rules to the administrators of the programs. 

Section 346-1 defines public assistance as money payments to or for the benefit of 
persons whom the department (of Social Sei-vices) has determined to be without sufficient 
means of support to maintain a minimum standard of Uving compatible with decency and 
health, including payments to or on behalf of such persons for medical care. 

The Director of the department appoints the administrators for the City and County of 
Honolulu and the counties of Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. 

While Section 346-33 provides that assistance payments are inalienable by any 
assignment, sale, attachment, execution or otherwise. Section 346-37 provides that if a 
recipient dies leaving an estate, the department may file a claim against the estate for the 
amount of aid granted. 

Section 346-54 provides that a blind person shall be eligible who is in need and has not 
sufficient income or other resources to provide a subsistence compatible with decency and 
health. Finally, Section 347-3 states that the department shall administer work with and for 
the blind, including the registry of the bUnd. vocational guidance, training, and placement in 
employment: and other services, including the conduct of activities for sight conseiTation 
and prevention of blindness. 

Hawaii elected to adopt the combined categories of Old Age Assistance, Aid to the 
Blind, and Aid to the Disabled effective October 1, 1962. The fact that the State lias been 
under the provisions of title XVI of the Social Security Act accounts to some extent for the 
insufficient statutory base provided for the granting of Aid to the Blind. 

3. Social and Statistical Data 

Much insight into the actual operation of programs of public assistance can be gained 
through a study of the actual case records which reflect pertinent information as to the 
day-to-day operation of the programs and precisely how they affect the welfaix of 
applicants and recipients of aid. During the course of this study every one of the case 
records of current recipients was studied. 

As of November, 1969, there were 960 blind persons on the official register which 
must be maintained by the Division of Rehabilitation and Services for the Blind of the 
department, although actual reporting of blindness itself is not mandatory. 

Hawaii had an cstinialed total population of 747,000 as of July 1, 1967, with an 
estimated total blind population of 3.98 per 1,000 of the general population, the highest 
rate in the Nation, according to Ralph Huriin's work on the pj-evalence of blindness. The 
United States average was only 2 14 per 1,000 of the general population. It is estimated that 
there are 150 new cases of bhndness each year in the State. 

As of September, 1969, there were just 66 persons receiving Aid to the Blind in the 
Islands. Oaliu had 53 recipients, Hawaii 5, Maui 4, and Kauai 4 The average grant for 
September was $1 17.05, with 50 percent of the cost being paid by the State and 50 percent 
by the Federal Government. In the United States as a whole some 20 percent of the 
estimated total blind population is receiving Aid to the Blind, yet in Hawaii we find only 66 
recipients! If Ralph Hurhn's estimates of the prevalence of bhndness are accepted, it would 
mean a total bhnd population in the State of 2,950. .Tust a little over 2 percent of this total 
blind population are recipients of aid. On the other hand, the agency for the bhnd in Hawaii 
estimates the total bhnd population of the State is about 1,200. Probably the total number 
of blind persons in the State hes somewhere between the high figure of HurHn and the low 
figure of the agency, or about 2.000. This would mean that the dependency rate, that is, 
those receiving public assistance, would be only a trifle over 3 percent of the total bhnd 

Among the 66 recipients of Aid to the Blind, there were almost twice as many males as 
females. Only 8 of the 66 were under the age of 40, 12 between 40 and 50, and 46 (or more 
than two-thirds) were over 50 years of age. 

Some 15 of the recipients were single, 22 were widowed or separated, and 29 married. 
About one-third of the recipients were totally bhnd, and two-thirds had some residual 
vision. Disease of one kind or another accounted for practically all of the cases of bhndness, 
and the vast majority of recipients had been bhnd for more than 10 years. 

The level of educational attainment among the recipients was quite low-more than 
one-third having less than an eighth-grade education-many without any formal education at 
all. Only about one-fourth had attended grades 8 to 12 

Self-support had been achieved prior to the onset of blindness by more than two-thirds 
of the recipients. Less than one-third had no work record, and these were mostly women. 

Only 4 recipients received a grant of aid of less than $25; 10 had a grant of between 
$25 and $45; 20 had a grant of between S45 and $90 and 32 or almost half had a grant of 
aid in excess of $90. 

Comparison of the average grant of Aid to the Blind in Hawaii with that of the Pacific 


Coast States on the mainland is interesting. The monthly average grant in Hawaii for May, 
1969, was $111.30, while the average payments in Hawaii's sister States along the Pacific 
Coast were: California, S 146.25; Oregon, S95.25; and Washington, $88.15. While Hawaii 
ranks number seven from the top in the amount of the average Aid to the Blind grant among 
the states, it must be pointed out that the cost of living is higher in the State than in any 
other state in the Union, with the possible exception of Alaska. 

4. Rules and Regulations 

The Manual of Policies and Procedures contains detailed rules and regulations of the 
Department of Social Services which govern the actual administration of each of the 
categorical aids, including Aid to the Blind. There aie several specific provisions in this 
Manual which merit comment insofar as they govern the administration of Aid to the Blind. 

There is a complete integration of Aid to the Bhnd with all other categories of public 
assistance for adults-in budgeting procedures, in rules and regulations, and in the actual 
administration. This rather complete lumping of the 66 recipients of Aid to the Blind with 
2,000 recipients of Old Age Assistance and 1.600 recipients of Aid to the Disabled mea ns 
that the needs of blind persons are largely lost sight of, making it virtually impossible to 
carr^' out adequately the objectives of promoting self-care and self-support as set forth in 
titles X and XVI of the Social Security Act. 

A blind person's needs are as broad as the effects of his blindness. Only when there is 
an opportunity in the administration of Aid to the Blind to deal with these needs separately 
can self-care and self-support be advanced significantly. The immediate and long-range social 
and economic gains which would result from gearing the administration of Aid to the Blind 
to the reduction of physical, social and economic dependency would far exceed any 
economies effected in admniistrative costs, and certainly outweigh any considerations with 
respect to ease of administration. 

The Department's Manual provides (sec. 3311) that the following basic requirements 
shall be provided recipients: food, shelter, utilities, household supplies, personal essentials, 
educational supplies, transportation, laundr>' and dry cleaning, and clothing. Special needs 
(sec. 3312) are listed as special food requirements, transportation, moving expenses, special 
educational requirements, household equipment, laundry and dry cleaning, insurance, 
telephone, medical care, housekeeper service, out-of-home care, fees and other costs, 
educational and community activities. 

However, the maximum allowances for the meeting of these basic and special needs are 
so low as to practically denv the opportunity to meet man\' of them . For instance, the food 
allowance for an adult living alone, including utilities, is only 564 a month in a locale where 
food costs are extremely high. Rent, excluding utilities, for one person is set at S53 a month 
(sec. 3322.1) in an area where high rentals have blossomed into a crisis causing state-wide 


concern for the average wage-earner, not to mention the recipient of public assistance. The 
maximum for clothing (sec. 3324.1) is only $25 for a full twelve-month period. 

All savings, as soon as they become available, shall be considered as a resource, that is, 
must be used up entirely (sec. 3359). And in detennining the mandatory exemption of $85 
a month plus 50 percent over that amount as required by the Social Security Act, only 
non-personal work expenses are deducted from gross income in arriving at net income-that 
is, the cost of tools, special uniforms and other such items. No provision is made for 
expenses while away from home, such as lunches and transportation, (sec. 3372) 

One of the most restrictive provisions is the relatives' responsibility scale as set forth in 
section 3381. The adult child must give the parent half of all income he has over $300 if he 
has only himself as a dependent; half of ail over $400 if he has a wife to support, and half of 
all over $450 if he has a wife and child to support. 

Insofar as property is concerned (sec. 3392) real property used as a home can be 
retained provided its appraisal value is $25,000 or less and other real property can be 
retained if its appraised value is $225 or less. There is absolutely no provision for the 
retention of any hquid assets at all, that is, cash, securities, or cash surrender value of 
insurance. Hawaii is probably the only State in the Union with such a restrictive provision. 

Even more striking than the inadequacy of the average grant of aid in Hawaii is the 
small percentage of bhnd persons receiving any aid payment at all . If the figure of 1 ,200 as 
estimated by Ho'opono for the total number of bhnd persons in Hawaii is accepted, then 
about 5 percent of the blind are receiving aid payments. If the figure of 2,950 as estimated 
by Ralph Hurhn is taken as more nearly correct for the total bhnd population, then the 
recipient rate is about 2 percent. Whether the recipient rate is 5 percent or 2 percent, there 
are abviously many blind persons in Hawaii~the figure would certainly run to several 
hundred-who are desperately in need of pubhc assistance and who are not receiving it. We 
know this from the small number of employed blind persons and from the general 
destitution which everywhere exists among the unemployed bhnd. We know it also from the 
fact that approximately 20 percent of the total blind population of the United States 
receives Aid to the Blind. 

What is the reason for the low recipient rate in Hawaii? In our opinion, the low 
recipient rate in the State can only be accounted for by the present restrictive provisions 
governing the administration of the Aid to the Blind program . More specifically, the 
inadequate coverage of Aid to the Blind can be attributed largely to four factors: l)the rigid 
budgetary method of determining the grant; 2)the requirement that every dollar of 
resources must first be spent and complete indigency thus attained before aid will be 
granted; 3)the harsh and deterrent nature of the provisions governing responsibility of 
relatives; 4)the integration of the blind caseload with other groups of aid recipients such as 
the aged and the disabled, thus preventing special attention to the peculiar needs of the 

First, many items of decent and healthful Uving are omitted from the budget entirely. 
Inadequate allowances are made for many of the items included in the budget. It is only in 
the most rudimentary sense that it can be said that the necessities of life are provided. 

Second, eligibihty for assistance depends on absolute destitution. Applicants and 
recipients of Aid to the Blind must be pennUess and without resources. They are not 
allowed to have cash reserves of whatever small amount, nor are they allowed to have any 
other resources m the form of some personal property reserves. A blind person must first 
divest himself, if he is to be eligible for aid, of every dollar he possessed for future 
contingencies-even being required to impair any small life insurance policy by draining the 
full cash surrender value off for daily existence. 

Third, an older blind man or woman is severely deterred from applying for aid if he or 
she has any children, by Nirtue of the harsh provisions of the responsibility of relatives 

Fourth, there is a complete scrambling of Aid to the Blind witli all other categories of 
public assistance, especially with Old Age Assistance and Aid to the Disabled. Hence, the 
peculiar and categorical needs of blind persons are just not met. 

5. Conclusions and Recommendations 

The 1956 Amendments to the Social Security Act, strengthened by the addition of the 
Service Amendments of 1962, added the goals of self-care and self-support to the list of 
purposes served by the public assistance program. With the addition of these constructive 
elements. Congress brought about a basic change in the character of public assistance, and 
registered its recognition that the human need of the blind individual to find his place as an 
active and contributing member of society is no less important than his animal need for 
food and shelter. In fact, man does not live by bread alone-unless there is no bread. The 
person who is in dire need of bread, or who is extremely deprived of any of his physiological 
needs, will not generally be concerned by the fact that he is not realizing his full potential. 
In other words, we cannot expect indiNaduals to be motivated to achieve, to be more 
self-confident, to be independent, or to reahze their full potential so long as their needs for 
physical well-being, safety and acceptance are not satisfied. 

Rehabilitation and self-support for the "rehabilitable" are, indeed, inseparably 
connected with basic moral, social and political tenets of our system-with individuahsm, 
with self-rehance, with initiative, with the dignity and worth of the human person, with 
equaUty of opportunity, both economic and social, and with full rights of participation in 
the normal activities of the community. 

After thirty-four years of experience under the Social Security Act, the Nation has 
learned much concerning both the disabilities and capabilities of our nearly 450,000 


sightless citizens. At the outset, the Social Security Act of 1935 and its categorical aid 
programs addressed themselves to the mimediate problems of poverty in a time of 
depression. The addition of title X, dealing with the blind, came almost as an after-thought 
in the deliberations of Congress, and was patterned closely after the provisions of title I, 
dealing with the aged. Thus, the numerous and profound differences between these two 
groups of recipients were glossed over in the original formulation and early administration 
of the Act. Most of the states followed this pattern 

Gradually, however, it has come to be recognized that the needs arising from blindness 
are not the same as those arising from old age The paramount distinction is in the fact that 
most of the aged are beyond the productive years of Ufe, whereas many of the blind still 
have their lives and careers before them. Their need is not for relief alone but for return to 
normal hfe--for the "hand up" wliich will enable them to achieve the goal of self-support. 

Furthermore, the pubhc assistance program for the blind will increasingly draw its 
clientele from the ranks of those in the productive years of life. As the Old Age and 
Survivor's Disability and Health Insurance program expands its coverage and improves its 
benefits, the number of aged blind persons eligible for Aid to the Blind correspondingly 
diminishes The addition of disability insurance alone was a new factor contributing to the 
same lesult. 

In short, the category' of bhnd men and women who are to receive primary benefit 
from the public assistance program is now increasingly composed of those who deserve and 
demand the opportunity to be useful and productive citizens, making an active contribution 
to the welfare of theii families, their communities and their State and Nation. Because 
pubhc assistance provisions designed for depression and oriented toward old age were 
inadequate to meet these purposes, the self-support and self-care clauses were made an 
integral part of the Nation's program of Aid to the Blind. 

As a result of the study of the important facets of the administration of Aid to the 
Blind in Hawaii, evaluated in teims of the needs of the State's sightless citizens and against 
the background of developments in the Nation during the past quarter of a century, the 
Survey Team offers the following conclusions and recommendations: 

1. The only effective way of preventing Aid to the Blind from continuing to be 
scrambled with Old Age Assistance and Aid to the Disabled, and thus losing its different 
objectives through the sheer weight of numbers of the two larger programs, is to make 
provision for the transfer of the administration of Aid to the Blind from the Department of 
Social Services and to place it in an independent agency concerned with rendering other 
services to the bhnd, preferably a Hawaii Comission for the Blind, This would provide an 
administrative structure which would assure the continual recognition of the special needs 
and requirements of blind recipients; it would promote an understanding on the part of the 
social workers and their supervisors of the creation and utilization of resources which would 
contribute to the attainment of self-care and self-support by blind recipients; and it would 
make possible formulation of rules and regiilaiions which relate directly to the needs of Aid 
to the Blind-rather than to those of Old Age Assistance or of Aid to the Disabled. 


It may be objected that, since Hawaii is a so-calkd title XVI State, it is not possible to 
remove Aid to the Blind from the other adult categories and to place its administration in a 
separate agency of State Government However, section 204 of Public Law^ 90-577, enacted 
in 1968, makes specific provision for such a transfer in the following language: 

Notwithstanding any other Federal law whjch provides that a single state agency 
or multi-member board or commission must be established or designated to 
administer or supervise the administration of any grant-in-aid program, the head 
of the Federal department or agency administering such program may, upon 
request of the Governor or other appropriate executive or legislative authority of 
the State responsible for dcteimining or revising the organizational structure of 
the State go\'ernment. waive the single State agency or multi-member board or 
cominissioii provision upon adequate showing that such provision prevents the 
establishment of the most effective and efficient organizational arrangements 
within tlie State government and approve other State administrative structure or 
anangements: provided, That the head of the Federal department or agency 
determines that the objectives of the Federal statute authorizing the grant-in-aid 
program will not be endangered by the use of such other State structure or 


2. The basic needs for the vei-y necessities of iife on the part of most recipients of Aid 
to the Blind are not being fully met, let alone special needs incident to blindness. The 
unusually low number of recipients of Aid to the Blind in Hawaii means that even the 
present legal provision requiring a subsistence compatible with decency and health is not 
being carried out for the hundreds who are not now recipients but require help. However, 
the basic problem goes deeper than that. In order to really minimize the harsh effects of the 
means test and to promote the purposes of per.sonal rehabilitation and self-support, Aid to 
the Blind should be granted on the basis of equal minimum payments to all blind recipients, 
to be specified by State law and to be employed as a floor of protection against 
dependency. Thus the minimum would be derived from the demonstrated needs of the 
group of recipients rather than from the demonstrated needs of the individual. The special 
circumstances of the individual would be taken into consideration for grants above the 
minimum amount. Through \h; device of the fixed minimum grant the dignity and integrity 
of the recipient, as well as his right to privacy, ire safeguarded; he is no longer subjected to 
the individualized investigations and discretionary judgments of the social worker, but is 
regarded as a member ot a class entitled to be treated in a manner prescribed by law. 

The purpose of such a provision is to replace in part the present onerous system of 
budgeting each recipient individually on the basis of individual need individually 


determined. Ihe inescapable tendency of the present practice is toward the gradual 
assumption of control by social workers over the personal affairs and very lives of the blind. 
No aspect of the existing law is more oppressive to the recipient or less conducive to his 
self-direction and self-rehance than tliis intricate and wasteful system, in which every penny 
of income must be analyzed and investigated and every resource meticulously assessed 
before the amount of each month's payment can be determined. The immediate and 
obvious consequence is that the client soon loses control of his supposedly free 
consumption choice; less obvious but still more crucial is his gradual loss of self-management 
and of the indispensable sense of self-control. Under such conditions the personal qualities 
most essential to the achievement of independence are soon undermined and destroyed and 
the needy bhnd citizen fails to have even his minimal basic needs for subsistence met. 

The principle of equal minimum payments to all blind recipients, with the provision of 
a floor of security and a positive stimulus to self-help and independence, helps to counteract 
the harshest features of the individualized means test: reduces administrative costs and 
simphfies procedures; and, most vital of all, preserves and promotes the moral and 
psychological well-being of bhnd recipients and stimulates them toward greater efforts in 
the direction of mdependence and self-support. 


3. The purpose declaration of the 1956 Amendments to the Social Security Act 
includes this statement: "To promote the well-being of the Nation by encouraging the 
States to place greater emphasis on helping to strengthen family hfe and helping needy 
families and individuals attain the maximum economic and personal independence of which 
they are capable." Thus, alongside the goals of self-support and self-care, the aim of helping 
to strengthen family life is made a specific purpose of the pubhc assistance program. In 
contrast to this objective, the effect of enforcing relatives' responsibility-a concept which is 
itself a holdover from the medieval poor laws-has been to humiliate and demoralize 
mdividual recipients and their families ahke. While the returns from such enforcement have 
never been financially significant in reducing expenditures under the program, such 
enforcement has plainly worked injustice and hardship both upon the aging parents passing 
out of the productive years of life and their children who are already burdened with the 
costs of bringing up their own families, Indeed, the general consequence of the practice has 
been to spread, rather than to relieve, poverty- while at the same time disrupting family ties, 
replacing mutual affection with bitterness, and retarding the development of the healthy 
family relations which are declared to be a major purpose of the public assistance programs. 



4. The retention of modest amounts of property by the blind recipient is a vital factor 
in encouraging commercial and professional plans for self-support and creating 
self-confidence and self-reliance despite the bamers to opportunity which exist for the blind 
in our society. The instruments and materials of a workshop, the books and equipment of 
the lawyer and teacher and doctor, the merchandise of a commercial enterprise, the animals, 
tools and machinery of an agricultural venture-none of these may presently be retained 
under the law, but all represent potential means in the luinds of the sightless individual inhis 
struggle to carry out an independent career. In short, to permit bhnd recipients of public 
assistance to retain and enjoy modest amounts of property while remaining eligible for aid is 
to preserve a basis of rehabilitation and of self-care. Since Hawaii's costs for Aid to the Blind 
are shared equally by the Federal Government, the recipient should be able to retain up to 
the maximum of resources permitted by the Federal Government. This would identify the 
need of the blind person for rehabilitation and self-support as a basic need. 

OR REGULATIONS. (See Appendix I, Ic) 

5. For any State to require the encumbering of the small amounts of property held by 
some recipients deprives these individuals of any ability to use their own resources for 
self-care and self-support. It is not possible to help the blind person to return to productive 
and useful living if his very future is to be mortgaged or his property is to be taken from him 
merely because he receives assistance in time of need. 

Liens or recovery provisions on the homes of needy blind persons bring in a nominal 
amount of revenue to the State treasury. Also, the necessity to give a lien on a small piece of 
property, or to face the certainty of recovery action after death, raises such a fear in the 
mind of the older blind person that often he refuses to apply for public assistance and 
remains in dire need. As any person, sighted or blind, grows older he develops an 
increasingly deep fear of losing any modest home he may possess. 

Of the fifty States, thirty-one do not now have any provision for recoveries, liens, and 
assignments against the property of the recipient of Aid to the Blind for the assistance given, 
or make any claim against his estate for the amount of aid granted. The lien and recovery 
provisions are reminiscent of the old Elizabethan Poor Laws, and are out of keeping with 
modern concepts. 





Over the years, the National Federation of the Blind ;ias sought to bring the safety of 
the white cane to the blind of all America. 

A white cane in our society has become one of the symbols of a blind person's 
abihty to come and go on his own. Its use has promoted courtesy and special 
consideration for the blind on our streets and highways. To make our people 
more fully aware of the meaning of the white cane, and of the need for motorists 
to exercise special care for the blind persons who carry it, Congress, by a joint 
resolution approved October 6, 1964, has authorized the President to proclaim 
October 1 5 of each year as White Cane Safety Day. Now, therefore, I, Lyndon B. 
Johnson, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim October 
15, 1964, as White Cane Safety Day. 

That ringing Presidential proclamation marked the climax of an historic campaign by 
the organized blind to gain recognition by the States and the Nation of the rights of blind 
pedestrians. It was in 1930 that the first State law was passed, requiring motorists to stop 
when a blind person crossed the street with a white cane. Today the white cane laws are on 
the books of every State in the Union-providing blind persons a legal status in traffic. 

Several years ago, Professor Jacobus tenBroek and Russell Kletzing conceived and 
drafted a Model White Cane Law. At the behest of the organized blind, many State 
Legislatures have since adopted this law. The National Federation of the Blind views this 
acliievement, and rightly so, as a veritable civil rights bill for the blind, the visually 
handicapped, and the otherwise physically disabled. The Model White Cane Law makes it 
the pohcy of the State that these persons shall be encouraged and enabled to participate 
fully in the social and economic life of the State. Calling for the cessation of discrimination 
on the grounds of disability, the law declares that the blind and disabled have the same right 
as the able-bodied to the full and free use of public streets, sidewalks, conveyances, public 
facilities and places of public accomodation. 

In this statute, the State calls upon the general citizenry to expect to see blind and 
disabled persons abroad in the community, going to and from the places of their work 
and/or recreation, and to take all necessary precautions to secure their safety. Motorists are 
required to yield the right-of-way to totally or partially blind persons carrying a 
predominantly white cane or using a guide dog, and the driver of any vehicle approaching 
such pedestrian who fails to yield the right-of-way or to take all reasonably necessary 
precautions to avoid injury to such blind pedestrian is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

One of the most significant features of the Model White Cane Law is the provision 
which declares that it shall be the policy of the State that blind persons, visually 
handicapped, and otherwise disabled persons shall be employed in the service of the State 


and its political subdivisions, in the public schools and in all other employment supported in 
whole or in part by pubUc funds on the same terms and conditions as the able-bodied. 
Despite various "Hire the Handicapped" campaigns, blind and disabled persons continue to 
have difficulty in procuring meaningful employment. The enactment of the new law will 
encourage employers to modernize and make equitable their hiring practices. 

In addition to advocating the enactment of the new law protecting the blind and 
securing their acceptance as full-fledged citizens participating in the social and economic life 
of their community, the National Federation of the Blind has sought in other ways to 
increase pubhc recognition of the values symbolized by the white cane. In 1947 it 
established the third week in May as a period for special concentration of efforts to educate 
the public concerning the hopes and aspirations of the blind and to ask their support. 
During White Cane Week thousands of envelopes are mailed across the land enclosing a 
pamphlet emphasizing the ability of the blind to be independent. 

"For blind people everywhere," as Professor tenBroek once said, "The white cane is 
not a badge of difference-but a token of their equality and integration. And for those who 
know its history and associations, the white cane is also something more; it is the tangible 
expression not only of mobility, but of a movement. " 

Appendix II) 



1. Introduction 

Adequate vocational rehabilitation of the blind is not merely physical or visual 
restoration; it is much more. The overwhelming majority of Hawaii's blind citizens will 
remain blind for the rest of their Uves, and the fundamental purpose of Vocational 
Rehabilitation is that of assisting them to secure remunerative employment in positions 
which are personally and emotionally satisfying, as well as positions which provide for 
maximum utilization of their abilities and capacities. To ijchieve this objective, counseling, 
giiidance, physical restoration, training and placement are essential elements; but, boldness, 
imagination and resourcefuhiess on the part of rehabilitation personnel are no less essential. 
To assist blind individuals in achieving full effectiveness, counseling and training must 
encompass development of Uie specialized .skill and techniques used by blind persons in 
doing, without sight or with ver>' little sight, live Ikisic things for which nonnal sight is 
utihzed by those who possess it. Adequacy as a blind person can be aciiieved most prcanptly 
and completely througli exposure to positive attitudes toward blindness, and to intensive 
training and experience in the skills and techniques utilized by other successful blind 
persons. It is the responsibility of Vocational Rehabilitation personnel to assist in 
developing motivation and employment opportunities. It is necessary that the community 
resources be mobilized in developing a favorable climate for employment of the blind, and 
that the bhnd, themselves, play an active, if not a leading, role in this process. 

The conclusions and recommendations which are contained in this report regarding 
vocational rehabihtation of Hawaii's blind citizens, would not have been possible were it not 
for the active cooperation of key staff members of the Division of Rehabilitation and 
Services for the Blind and the House of Representatives. For their full cooperation and 
assistance, the Survey Team is especially indebted to Mr. Tadao Beppu, Speaker, House of 
Representatives, Mr. Wilbam G. Among. Director, Department of Social Ser\'ices, Mr. Kuniji 
Sagara. Administrator, Division of Rehabilitation and Services for the Blind, and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Morrison, Administrator, Services for the Bhnd Branch. 

2. Back'-^round 

The Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Act was passed by the National Congress in 
1920. It underwent substantial amending in 1943, 1954, 1965, and 1968. Although the 
result of tliese amendments was a number of technical changes, their total effect has been to 
greatly expand the scope and quahty of rehabilitation senaces, the number and groups of 
disabled persons to be served and to increase the Federal share of expenditures for 
reliabilitation services. In fiscal year 1970 (July 1, 1969-Iune 30, 1970), approximately 
S436 million will be available as grant-in-aid funds to the states to carry out the vocational 
rehabilitation program, and the states earn Federal funding by providing from state or local 


funds 20 percent of the cost while the Federal Govi-rnmenl provides 80 percent of the cost 
within the hmitations of the Appropriations Act. 

In 1965, Congress amended the Social Security Act to make available to state 
rehabilitation programs social security trust fund monies to pay 100 percent of the cost of 
rehabihtation services provided to selected recipients of social security disability cash 
benefits. During fiscal 1970 approximately $22 million will be available from this source, 
and state matching funds are not required. 

In 1936 the National Congress adopted the Randolph-Sheppard Act which affords a 
preference to bhnd persons m the operation of vending stands and snack bars on "Federal 
and other property The Randolph-Sheppard Act was amended and strengthened in 1954, 
and further amendments are pending before the United States Congress. Substantial funding 
for the Randolph-Sheppard program for the blind is available to state rehabilitation 
programs through the Vocational Rehabilitation Act as amended. The Vocational 
Rehabihtation Act as amended and the Randolph-Sheppard Act as amended are 
administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration, United States Department of 
Health, Education and Welfare. 

Under the foregoing Federal acts, the states are afforded considerable latitude in the 
type and administrative structure of rehabilitation programs which it is their option to 
establish. In recognition of the different and unique needs of bhnd persons for rehabihtation 
services, approximately three-fourths of the states have established specialized rehabihtation 
agencies to serve blind persons and these agencies are entirely separate from those providing 
rehabilitation services to other disabled persons. The Federal Rehabilitation Services 
Administration also has estabhshed a Division of Services for the Blind to provide 
speciaUzed assistance in the rehabilitation of this disability group. Those states which do not 
have two separate and distinct rehabilitation programs (one to provide services to the blind 
and the other to provide services to the other disabiHty groups) have estabhshed specialized 
adimnistrative units to assist blind citizens in achieving vocational rehabilitation. Employer 
misconceptions about the nature of blindness as well as other problems involved in 
successfully and adequately rehabilitating blind persons have long demonstrated the need 
for specialized staff, services, and techniques if maximum rehabilitation of this disabihty 
group is to be achieved. 

In 1935, Hawaii took its first step to inaugurate a program of services to the adult 
Wind when the Territorial Legislature appropriated the sum of $20,000 for the 1935-37 
biennium to establish a "Bureau of Sight Conservation and Work with the Bhnd." In 1936, 
Mrs. Grace C. Hamman was appointed to initiate and direct this new program. The new 
program grew steadily from its inception, and by 1951 it had acquired a substantial staff 
and an operating budget of $133,000 for that year. By this time some vocational 
rehabilitation services were being provided, a vending stand program for the blind under the 
Randolph-Sheppard Act had been inaugurated, a sheltered workshop for the bhnd was in 
operation and numerous social casework services were being provided to blind Hawaiians. 


In recognition of the fact that its services to Hawaii's bhnd citizens were far from 
adequate, the Bureau m the summer of 1951-with funds from District 50 of Lions 
International and the Federal Office of Vocational Rehabilitation-inaugurated a six-week 
summer training program which included 24 blind persons. In 1952, utilizing faciHties 
borrowed from one of Honolulu's pubUc high schools, the Bureau conducted an eight-week 
summer program which provided training to 28 persons. The 1953 Territorial Legislature 
recognized the need to improve programming for the blind and appropriated funds to 
continue these summer training sessions through 1955. 

In 1955, Hawaii's Department of Public Works made a small building available to the 
Bureau, and an extremely limited year-round training program for Hawaii's blind citizens 
was inaugurated and continued through 1962. The activities conducted in this facility were 
restricted pdmanly to crafts, braille and mobility. The 1955 Legislature appropriated 
S 150,000 ;md this amount, augmented by the $20,000 donated by Hawaii Lions, was used 
to acquire land and prepare an architectural plan for a permanent year-round training 
facihty for the blind. In October of 1962 the present facihty at 1901 Bachelot Street, in 
Honolulu, was completed and named Ho'opono. In Hawaiian, "Ho'opono" means "to make 
things right." 

In 1959 Hawaii attained statehood and substantial government reorganization 
occurred. The program for the blind which had been independent of other programs was 
involved in this reorganization. The Pubhc Welfare Division absorbed the program for the 
blind, and virtually all of its program identity was lost through reassignment of personnel 
and dispersal of seiTices and activities among several branches of that division. With the 
completion of the Ho'opono facility late in 1962. some of the personnel in the earher 
program for the blind were assigned to Ho'opono under the administration of the Oaliu 
County Branch of the Division of Public Welfare. Sendees to blind persons on other islands 
were administered through the respective county departments of public welfare, and all 
blind applicants for services, whether on Oahu or the other islands, were required to follow 
the same procedure as that prescribed for applicants of public welfare. This procedure was 
unnecessary and very distasteful to the blind themselves. 

As a result of legislative reorganization, the Ho'opono facility was removed from the 
Oahu County Department of the Division of PubUc Welfare and elevated to a branch of the 
Hawaii State Division of Public Welfare in 1965. With this action, semces to the blind on 
Oahu, other than aid to the needy bUnd, were to be provided with use of the staff and 
facilities at Ho'opono. Blind persons on the neighboring islands were to continue receiving 
services through the respective county departments of welfare. 

Early in 1967, the Division of Vocational Rehabihtation (a separate program providing 
rehabihtation ser\'ices to all disabihty groups other than the blind) was transferred from the 
Department of Education to the Department of Social Ser\Tces by executive order. The 
1967 Legislature recommended and authorized staff positions to improve and strengthen 
the State's program of services to the bhnd. In June of that year, by executive order, 
Hawaii's services to the blind, other than aid to the needy bhnd, were transferred to the 


Division ot Vocational Rehabilitation, itscil" j part ot the Depaitrnent of Social Services. 
Blind persons living on Oahu have since received rehabilitation and related services through 
the staff and facilities at Ho'opono. Blind persons living on the neighboring islands have 
since received vocational rehabilitation and related services through distiict offices of the 
Division of Vocational Rehabilitation rather than the county departments of welfare. The 
staff serving blind persons on the neighboring islands is responsible to their respective 
branch admmistrators. The facility at Ho'opono may be used on a per-case basis in providing 
training to blind persons residing on neighbormg islands when and if tliat training is 
recommended and approved by a responsible branch office of the Division of Vocational 
Rehabihtalion. In effect. Hawaii now has a centralized program on Oahu under tlie overall 
siipervisioji of a branch administrator, whereas on the neighboring islands rehabilitation 
sei^vices are provided by staff who are not responsible to the Services for the Blind Branch 
Administrator on OaJiu. 

3. The Statutes 

The legal basis for the Hawaii Rehabilitation Program is found in Revised Laws of 
Hawaii, Title 20, Chapters 347 and 348. 

Chapter 347-3 provides that the Department of Social Services shall administer work 
with and for the bhnd, including the registry of the blind, vocational guidance, training, and 
placement in employment, and other services, including the conduct of activities for sight 
conservation and the prevention of blindness. 

Chapter 347-4 authorizes the Department of Social Services to provide vocational 
rehabilitation for blind and visually handicapped persons and defines vocational 
rehabilitation services to include guidance, counsehng, physical restoration, training, 
maintenance during training, transportation to and from training, and other transportation, 
prosthetic devices, placement, and any other service or benefit for the vocational 
rehabilitation of blind or visually handicapped persons. 

Chapter 347-5 authorizes the Department of Social Services, as the agency of the State 
for the assistance of bhnd or visually handicapped persons, to do all things which will enable 
the State and the bbnd and the visually handicapped in the State to have the benefits of all 
Federal laws for the benefit of bhnd and visually handicapped persons. 

Chapter 347-6 requires the Department of Social Semces to maintain a complete 
register of blind residents of the State which shall describe the condition, causes of 
blindness, capacity for education and industrial training, and such other facts as may seem 
to it to be of value regarding each blind person, together with recommendations for 
rehabilitation and relief. 


The Department is also required to register persons whose eyesight is seriously 
defective or who are likely to become visually handicapped orbUnd. and take such measures 
in cooperation with other authorities, as it deems advisable for the prevention of blindness 
or conservation of eyesight, and in appropriate cases provide for or secure the vocational 
guidance of persons having seriously defective sight. 

Chapter 347-7 requires the Department of Social Services to cause to be maintained 
one or more agencies for employment information and industrial aid, the object of which 
shall be to aid the blind and visually handicapped persons in finding employment and shall 
provide instruction for such persons in trades and occupations which may be followed in 
their homes, and shall assist such persons in whatever manner in disposing of the products of 
their home industry. 

Chapter 347-8 authorizes the Department of Social Services to employ blind and 
visually handicapped persons in workshops or in their homes a)id to furnish them materials, 
machinery', necessary supervision and other help and facilities. This paragraph also provides 
that such persons shall not be considered as state employees but shall be eligible for 
workmen's compensation, the cost of which shall be borne by the state insurance fund. 
Nothing in this section, however, shall be construed to prevent such persons from being 
covered by title 11 of the Social Security Act. 

Chapter 347-9 authorizes the Depaj'tment of Social Services to provide home teacher 
sei-vices to blind and visually handicapped persons, promote visits among them and circulate 
reading materials to them. 

Chapter 347-10 authorizes the Department of Social Sei-vices in the conduct of its sight 
conser/ation progi-am to accept donations, which shall be deposited in the state treasury. 
The Department of Social Services, in consultation and cooperation with the Department of 
Health, shall make investigation of the causes of blindness, learn what proportion of the 
cases arc preventibie, and inaugurate and cooperate in any such preventive measuies as may 
seem advisable for the State. They or either of them may arrange for eye examinations and 
may provide or secure medical and surgical treatment. 

Chapter 347-1 1 provides for confidentiaUtA,' of records. 

Chapter 347-12 requires that the Department of Budget and Finance maintain a blind 
shop revolving and handicraft fund for use of the Department of Social Services in providing 
workshop or home employment for blind persons. All receipts from such employment shall 
be deposited in this fund. 

Chapter 348-1 provides that vocational rehabilitation services shall be provided to 
residents throughout the State and the vocational rehabilitation plan prepared in 
conformance with the Federal Vocational Rehabihtation Act as amended and adopted 
pursuant to this chapter, shall be in effect in all political subdivisions of the State. 


Chapter 348-2 defines a series of terms relevant to vocational rehabilitation services, 
and those most relevant to services to blind persons are sunimari/ed as follows: 

(1) The term "handicapped individual" means an individual who is under a physical 
or mental disabihty which constitutes a substantial handicap to employment, but 
which is of such a nature that appropriate vocational rehabilitation services may 
reasonably be expected to render him able to engage in a remunerati\'e 

(2) The term "remunerative occupation" inchidcs employment as an employee or 
self-employed, practice of a profession, homemaking, or farm or family work for 
which payment is in kind rather than cash, sheltered employment and home 
industry or other homebound work of a remunerative nature. 

(3) The term "vocational rehabilitation services" means: 

(A) Diagnostic and related services (including transportation) incidental to 
the determination of whether an individual is a handicapped individual, 
and if so, his ehgibility for, and the nature and scope of other 
vocational rehabilitation services to be provided; and 

(B) The following services provided eligible handicapped individuals 
needing the services: 

(i) Training; 

(li) Guidance; 

(iii) Placement; 

(iv) Maintenance during vocational rehabihtation; 

(v) Occupational hcenses, tools, equipment, initial stocks, and 
supplies (including equipment and initial stocks and supplies 
for vending stands), books, and training materials: 

(vi) Transportation (other than provided as diagnostic and related 
services) ; 

(vii) Physical restoration. 

(4) The term "physical restoration" includes: 

(A) Corrective surgery or therapeutic treatment necessary to correct or 
substantially modify a physical or mental condition which is stable or 
slowly progressive and constitutes a substantial handicap to 
employment, but is of such a nature that the correction or modification 
may reasonably be expected to eliminate or substantially reduce the 


handicap within a reasonable length of time; and includes psychiatric 
treatment, dentistry, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech or 
hearing therapy, treatment of medical complications, and emergencies 
which are associated with or arise out of physical restoration services or 
are inherent in the condition under treatment, and other medical 
services related to rehabihtation. 

(B) Necessary hospitalization (either in-patient or out-patient), nursing or 
rest home care, in connection with surgery or treatment in connection 
with physical restoration. 

(C) Prosthetic devices essential to obtaining or retaining employment. 

(5) The term "prosthetic appHance" means any appliance designed to support or take 
the place of a part of the body, or to increase the acuity of a sensory organ. 

(6) The term "maintenance" means the provision of money to cover the handicapped 
individual's necessary living expenses and health maintenance essential to 
achieving his vocational rehabilitation. 

(7) The term "vocational rehabihtation" means making an individual able, or 
increasing his ability to engage in a remunerative occupation through providing 
him needed vocational rehabihtation services. 

(8) The term "workshop" means a place where any manufacture or handiwork is 
carried on and which is operated for the primary purpose of providing 
remunerative employment to severely handicapped individuals who cannot be 
readily absorbed in the competitive labor market. 

Chapter 348-3 provides that, except as may be otherwise provided with respect to the 
blind, the Department of Social Services shall be the sole state agency to supemse and 
administer vocational rehabilitation services authorized by this chapter under the state plan 
formulated in conformance with the Federal Vocational Rehabilitation .A.ct as amended and 
administered pursuant to this chapter. 

Chapter 348^ authorizes the Dep;utment of Social Services: 

(1) To establish public or non-profit rehabihtation facilities and workshops. 

(2) To use state appropriations and donations for vocational rehabihtation whenever 
Federal funds are available to the state under the various sections of the 
Vocational Rehabilitation Act as amended for: extension and improvement of 
vocational rehabilitation services, for projects for reseai-ch, demonstrations, 
training and traineeships and for planning for and initiating expansion of 
vocational rehabilitation services. 


(3) The Department of Social Services is also authorized to accept Federal and other 
funds aiid use them for vocational rehabilitation services subject to such 
restrictions as may be imposed by the donor and are not inconsistent with this 

Chapter 348-5 provides that vocational rehabilitation sen'ices shall be available to any 
civil employee of the United States disabled while in the performance of his duty, on the 
same terms aiid conditions as apply to other persons. 

Chapter 348-6 authorizes the Department of Social Services: 

(1) To promulgate rules and regulations with respect to methods of administration, 
use of medical and other records of individuals who have been provided 
vocational rehabilitation services, and the establishment and maintenance of 
personnel standards, including provisions relating to the tenure, appointment, and 
qualification of personnel; 

(2) To adopt rules and regulations with respect to the estabhshment and maintenance 
of minimum standards governing the facilities and personnel utilized in the 
provision of vocational rehabilitation services, and the order to be followed in 
selecting those to whom vocational rehabihtation services are to be provided in 
situations where such services cannot be provided all eligible physically 
handicapped people. 

Chapter 348-7 authorizes the Department of Social Services: 

(1) To cooperate with and utihze the services of the state agency administering the 
pubhc assistance program, the Federal Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance 
(Department of Health. Education and Welfare), and other Federal, state, city, 
county, local public and private agencies providing services relating to vocational 
rehabihtation, and with the state system of public employment offices in the 
State, and shall make maximum feasible utihzation of the job placement and 
employment counseling services and other services and facilities of such offices. 

(2) To enter into contractural arrangements with the Federal Bureau of Old— Age and 
Survivors Insurance (Department of Health, Education and Welfare) with respect 
to certifications of disabihty and performance of other services, and with other 
authorized public agencies for performance of services related to vocational 

(3) To contract with schools, hospitals, and other agencies, and with doctors, nurses, 
technicians, and other persons, for training, physical restoration, transportation, 
and other vocational rehabilitation services. 

Chapter 102-14, Revised Laws of Hawaii, contains provisions similar to those enacted 


m muny other states and patterned after the Federal Raiidoipli-Sheppard Act, as amended. 
For the prapose of providing blind or visually handicapped persons with remunerative 
employment, enlargmg the economic opportunities of the bhnd or visually handicapped 
persons, and stimulatijig them to greater efforts in striving to make themselves 
self-supporting, Section 102-14 requires state and county authorities responsible for the 
management of public buildings to authorize blind or visually handicapped persons to 
maintam and operate stands and machines for the vending of newspapers, periodicals, 
confections, tobacco products, and such other articles as may be approved by the 
responsible authorities in any state and county building where such vending stands and 
machines may be properly and satisfactorily operated by blind or visually handicapped 
persons. It also requires that in authorizing the maintenance and operation of vending stands 
and machines in state and county buildings, preference shall be given, so far as feasible, to 
blind or H'isually handicapped persons andthe state and county authorities responsible for 
the management of public buildings sh;ill prescribe rules and regulations, in accordance with 
Chapter 9 1 , designed to assure such preference for blind or visually handicapped persons. 

Finally, this section further provides that any permit granted may be terminated 
whenever the custodian in question is satisfied that the stand is not being operated in 
accordance with the applicable rules and regulations. 

4. The State Plan 

The major characteristics and detailed proNasions of organization, policy, and 
administration ai-e set forth in the Hawaii Plan for Vocational Reiiabihtation, which has' 
been approved by the Federal Rehabilitation Services Administration. More detailed 
explanations of some of these provisions as well as a series of pobcy and procedure 
memonmda and medical fee sciiediiies have been set forth m two additional volumes. The 
State Plan and the two additional volumes will be considered in a body. All are 
implementations and explanations of the State Plan. 

Vocational Rehabihtation is a Federal granl-in-aid program. Federal financial 
participation is based on a variable grant formula. As a result of this formula. Hawaii 
receives a major portion of its rehabilitation funds from the Federal Government. Federal 
financial participation is conditioned upon state compliance with Federal legislation and 
with regulations and policies developed by the Federal Rehabilitation Seraces 

The Hawaii Plan designates the Department of Social Services as the sole state agency 
to administer the vocational rehabilitation program, including sen-ices for the blind. The 
Department of Social Services is headed by a Duector, who is responsible to the Governor 
of the State. 

The Department is organized into offices and divisions. The offices are administrattve 


services, personnel, research and statistics, and program evaluation. The divisions are paroles 
and pardons, housing, corrections, public welfare, and vocational rehabilitation. 

The Vocational Rehabilitation Division is concerned primarily with vocational 
rehabilitation and other rehabilitation of disabled individuals, and is responsible for the 
vocational rehabilitation program in the Department. 

The heads of the various offices and divisions are responsible to the Director of the 

The Director is responsible for the administration of the Department. 

The personnel office manages the personnel program of the Department, including the 
provision of such services as recruitment, classification, employee relations, employee 
training and development, personnel transactions, and maintenance of personnel records. 

The administrative services office provides internal management, budgeting, 
accounting, purchasing, and other housekeeping services for the Department. 

The research and statistics office performs program research and statistical analysis 
functions for the Department. 

The program evaluation office evaluates and reports on execution of programs. 

The Public Welfare Division provides social services to individuals and families to 
maintain self care and support including medical care and financial assistance. 

The Vocational Rehabilitation Division administers the vocational rehabihtation 
program in the State as provided in the Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Act, including the 
rehabihtation of beneficiaries of disability insurance benefits, services to the bhnd and 
visually handicapped, and disability detennination under the Social Security Act. 

The Vocational Rehabilitation Division is organized into branches, and the sub-units of 
the branches are designated as sections and units. The organizational units and their 
functions are as follows: 

The Administration office is the office of the Administrator of the Division and is 
responsible for administenng on a statewide basis the vocational rehabilitation program, 
disability determination, and services to the blind 

The office of consultant staff services is responsible to the Administrator for 
establishing policies, standards, and procedures relating to medical consultation and services, 
rehabilitation facilities and workshops, vocational rehabilitation services including extended 
evaluation and rehabilitation of disability insurance beneficiaries, staff development, 
disability determination, and other services to the bhnd. 


The vocational rehabilitation branch is responsible to the Division's Administrator for 
supervision of the vocational rehabilitation program including rehabilitation services to 
beneficiaries of disability insurance on the Island of Oahu. The branch is divided into four 
sections as follows: 

Waikiki Section provides vocational rehabilitation services to handicapped persons 
other than the blind and the mentally retarded residing within designated areas on Oahu. 

Ewa Section provides vocational rehabilitation services to handicapped persons other 
than the blind and mentally retarded residing within a designated area on Oahu. 

Work Training Section provides vocational rehabilitation services to all mentally 
retarded persons on Oahu. 

Independent Living Section provides vocational rehabilitation services to all severely 
physically disabled persons, other than the blind and mentally retarded on Oahu. In 
addition this section provides diagnostic and restorative services to persons sent to Oahu 
from the Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai district offices, and from Guam. 

Disability Determination Branch is responsible to the Division's Administrator for 
making determination of disability of applicants for disability insurance benefit under an 
agreement with the Social Security Administration. 

Rehabilitation services for the blind and visually handicapped branch is responsible to 
the Division's Administrator for the administering of vocational and other rehabilitation 
services to blind and visually handicapped persons, including beneficiaries of disability 
insurance on Oahu and through the district offices on Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. Its services 

a. Vocational rehabilitation 

b. Operation of an adjustment center and sheltered workshop called Ho'opono 

c. Low vision clinic 

d. Home Industries 

e. Vending stands and small business enterprise 

f. Sight conservation. 

Section 2.6 of the State Plan provides that a key member of the Division staff will be 
the State Medical Consultant who is responsible for development of the Division's policies 
regarding medical affairs including examinations, determination of the adequacy of physical 
restoration services and consultation with members of the Division staff regarding the 
detennination of ehgibility and the appropriateness of individual rehabilitation plans for 
disabled persons. The State Medical Consultant will be assisted by physicians licensed to 
practice medicine and surgery in Hawaii who will work with the disabUity determination 


unit and counselors in the branch and district offices. Adequate medical consultation wilt be 
available on all medical aspects of the vocational rehabihtation program. Section 2.9a of the 
State Plan provides that the Division has estabUshed and will maintain cooperative 
relationships with the following: 

( 1 ) Bureau of Employees' Compensation of the Department of Labor. 

(2) Social Security Administration of the Department of Health, Education and 

(3) Public Welfare Division of the State Department of Social Services 

(4) Division of Workmen's Compensation of the State Department of Labor and 
Industrial Relations. 

(5) State Employment Service of the Department of Labor and Industrial Relations. 

Section 2.9b provides that there is a written agreement between the Division and the 
State Employment Service providing for reciprocal referral services, exchange of reports of 
service, jomt service programs, continuous haison, and maximum utilization of job 
placement and employment counseling services and other services and facilities available 
through the state employment service. In addition, the Division has estabhshed and will 
maintain cooperative relationships with other public and private agencies. 

One problem in following the "State Plan Guide" too closely can be illustrated by 
Section 2.9d of the Hawaii State Plan. Although the Division of Vocational Rehabihtation 
and Services for the Blind administers rehabihtation services for the blind. Section 2 9d 
reads as follows: 

The Division will establish reciprocal referral services with the State agency 
administering vocational rehabilitation services for the bhnd, utilizing each other's 
services and facilities to the extent practicable and feasible; jointly plan activities 
which will improve services to handicapped individuals i:i the State; and otherwise 
cooperate in the interest of providing more effective services. 

Apparently this paragraph was not deleted from the State Plan when the two programs 
were merged on July 1 of 1967 

In addition to Section 1. General Provisions, and Section 2, Administrative 
Organization, the Hawaii State Plan contains the followmg sections which outline in a broad 
general way the Division's policies and procedures. 

Section 3, Personnel Administration 
Section 4. Fiscal Administration 
Section 5, Reports 
Section 6, Scope of Agency Program 


Soclion 7. Casefinding and Intake 

Section 8, Determination of Rehabilitation Potential and Eligibility 

Section 9. Case Study and Diagnosis 

Section 10, Rehabilifation Plans for the Individual 

Section 1 1. Order of Selection for Services 

Section 12,Counsehng 

Section 13, Client Resources 

Section 14, Case Recording 

Section 15, Confidential Information 

Section 16, Standards for Facilities 

Section 17, Standards for Personnel Providing Sei-vices 

Section 18, Rates of Payment 

Section 19, Authorization of Services 

Section 20, Services to Individuals 

Section 21, Small Business Enterprises Including Vending Stands 

Section 22, Establishment of Workshops 

Section 23. Establishment of Rehabilitation Facilities 

Section 24, Hearings on Applicant's Appeals 

Section 25, Civil Rights, Statement of Compliance 

Section 26, Services to Disability Beneficiaries 

Although the sections of the State Plan outlined in the foregoing paragraph contain 
considerable detail relevant to the rehabihtation of blind persons, five sections in particular 
warrant specific comment in order to understand the overall procedure in providing 
rehabilitation services to blind persons. 

1. Section 6 provides that the following rehabihtation services wiU be furnished to each 
individual deemed ehgible for vocational rehabilitation services and found by the diagnostic 
study to require such services: counseling, physical restoration, training, books, and training 
materials (including tools), maintenance during rehabihtation, placement, tools, equipment, 
initial stocks and supphes, transportation, occupational licenses, reader services for the 
bhnd, interpreter services for the deaf and other goods and services. The Division will 
request Federal financial participation for all expenditures relating to the operation of the 
Division that are in conformity with the Federal Vocational Rehabihtation Law and the 

2. Section 7 provides that the Division will accept referrals from individuals, public 


and/or private agencies through telephone, letter, personal contact or other means and the 
Division will locate and interview handicapped persons in all districts of the State. The 
Division through its various offices will provide expeditious and equitable handling of 
referrals and applications through prompt contact with each applicant, and will report to 
referral agencies. 

3. Section 13 of the State Plan provides that the Division will give full consideration to 
any benefit available to the handicapped individual by way of pension, compensation or 
insurance to meet, in whole or in part, the cost of any vocational rehabilitation services 
provided to the individual except diagnostic and related services (including transportation), 
counsehng, training, reader services for the bhnd, interpreter services for the deaf and 
placement. This section further provides that no economic needs test will be applied as a 
condition for furnishing vocational rehabilitation services. 

4. Section 21 of the Hawaii State Plan contains the vocational rehabiUtation agency's 
general provisions for the conduct of a vending stand and small business enterprises program 
for the blind and severely disabled under the continuing supervision of the State 
Rehabilitation Agency. The Department of Social Services is designated as the State 
licensing agency for the vending stand program for the bhnd under the Federal 
Randolph-Sheppard Act as amended. This section of the State Plan also describes the factors 
which will be considered in estabhshing a vending stand or a small business enteiprise; it 
provides that the State licensing agency will provide management and supervision adequate 
to assist each operator in conducting the vending stand or small business enterprise in the 
most productive and efficient manner, and that Federal financial participation will be 
claimed in the cost of these management services. Section 21 further provides that the 
Department of Social Services will be the sole licensing agency for blind persons operating 
vending stands on Federa: and other property, that the blind operators of such vending 
stands will submit reports to the Department from time to time, and that each operator of a 
vending stand or a small business will receive the proceeds of the operation, less operating 

This section of the State Plan is further augmented by Rule 9 "Rules and Regulations 
for Vending Stand Program for the Blind on Federal and Other Property," and "Policies and 
Procedures Governing the Business Enterprise Program for the Blind and Visually 
Handicapped." The Rules and Regulations have been issued pursuant to Federal regulations 
implementing the Randolph-Sheppaid Act and those regulations require that a copy of the 
State Agency's rules and regulations be made available to each operator of a vending stand 
along with an agreement between the Ucensing agency and the operator and that the 
operator understands both as evidenced by his signature. Hawah's Rules and Regulations 
were approved and pubhshed m August of 1967. 

At the time the Rules and Regulations were prepared and published, apparently there 
was some misunderstanding or confusion regarding the merger of the Division of Vocational 
Rehabilitation and the Services for the Blind Branch. The Rules and Regulations provide as 
follows in Part A. Definitions: "5. 'Commission for the Blind' means the Rehabilitation 


Services Branch for the Blind and Visually Handicapped, Public Welfare Division, 
Department of Social Services, which provides sen'ices exclusively for the blind and other 
visually handicapped individuals." 

The State Rules and Regulations define vending stand equipment to include the 
following in Part A, Definitions: "16. 'Equipment' means (a). Shelter, counters, shelving, 
display and wall cases, refrigerating apparatus and other appropriate equipment purchased 
with vocational rehabihtation funds for the purpose of establishing blind and visually 
handicapped persons in gainful employment; (b). Cafeteria or snack bar facilities for the 
dispensing of food stuffs and beverages; and (c). Manual or coin-operated automatic vending 

Section 5 of the Rules and Regulations provides in accordance with Federal regulations 
that opportunity for fair hearing will be afforded to each operator or his representative or 
next of kin if he is dissatisfied with any action arising from the question or administration 
of the Business Enterprise Program. The Rules and Regulations require thai request for a 
fair hearing shall be submitted in writing to the Director of the Department of Social 
Services and that Uic dissatisfied operator shall have the right to be represented at the 
hearing by counsel or other representative. The dissatisfied operator shall have adequate 
time to prepare and present his case, and the right to cross-examine witnesses. The hearing 
shall be before the Director of the Department of Social Services or his designated agent, 
and the authority to make the final decision based upon the record of the hearing shall be 
vested in the Department, and the verbatim transcript of the testimony and exhibits, or an 
official report containing the substance of what transpired at the hearing, together with all 
papers and reports filed in the proceedings, and the hearing officer's recommendation, shall 
constitute the exclusive record for the decision and shall be made available to the operator 
at any reasonable time. 

The "Policies and Procedures Governing the Business Enterprise Program for the Blind 
and Visually Handicapped" is similar in many respects to the agency's Rules and 
Regulations discussed above, and it is the document, rather than the Rules and Regulations, 
which vending stand operators are required to sign. It also contains the agreement between 
the agency and the operator and a waiver of liabihty agreement. Aside from the fact that 
these two documents do not agree on all points, confusion arises by virtue of the existence 
of both. The Policies and Procedures document describes very broadly the powers and 
authority of the Department of Social Services but very narrowly defines the rights and 
opportunities of vending stand operators. This point can be illustrated by the following: "7. 
Causes for which an operator may be transferred, removed, demoted or suspended as 
operator of a vending stand by the Department shall be based on the following reasons: a. 
For contraction of any infections or contagious diseases." To further illustrate tlie severe 
restrictions imposed upon vending stand operators, the Depai^tment requires that each 
operator sign a waiver of hability. That waiver reads in part as follows: "... the 
undersigned hereby agrees to enter the said premises at his own risk while enjoying the 
accorded privilege in the same premises and to assume all risk of injuries and property 
damage or loss which the undersigned may sustain while in occupation of the 


aforementioned premises, or while in and about the same, whether such injuries, property 
damage, or loss are due to the negligence of the Grantors, their employees, agents, or visitors 
or otherwise: and the undersigned, on behalf of himself and his legal representatives, agrees 
to indemnify and hold free and harmless the Grantors from and against any and all expense 
10 which they may be put in connection with or arising out of such injuries, possible 
damage, or loss." 

5. Section 24 of the Hawaii State Plan provides that an applicant for or recipient of 
vocational rehabilitation services who is dissatisfied with any decision of the Division with 
regard to the furnishing or denial of services may file a request for review and 
redetermination of that decision. Such review shall be made by the Director of the Division. 

If an applicant for or recipient of services is not satisfied with the administrative review 
he may request a fair hearing based on a denial of services or a failure of the Division to 
provide services with reasonable promptness. All applicants for services are required to be 
advised of their right to a fair hearing. At the hearing the individual, and his representative if 
he desires to have one, shall have an adequate opportunity for cross-examination and to 
present evidence in his behalf. Insofar as possible the hearing shall be held before an official 
or officials of the Division who have not taken part in the action under consideration and 
authority to make the final decision based on the record of the hearing is vested in the 
Director of the Department of Social Services. Although the State Plan provides that 
authority to make the final decision in a fair hearing shall be vested in the Board of 
Education, this authority was transferred to the Director of Social Semces by the executive 
reorganization order. 

The verbatim transcript of the testimony and exhibits, or an official report containing 
the substance of what transpired at the hearing, together with all papers and reports filed in 
the proceedings, and the hearing officer's recommendation, shall constitute the exclusive 
record for decision and shall be available to the individual at any reasonable time. 

The decision shall set forth the issue, principle , and relevant facts brought out at the 
hearing, the pertinent provisions in law and in agency policy, and the reasoning that led to 
the decision. The individual shall be forwarded a copy of the decision or shall be advised in 
writing of the content. 

In summary, the Federal Act and Regulations, the State Statutes, the State Plan and 
related materials set out in rather voluminous form a myriad of requirements and 
procedures. For blind and visually handicapped applicants for rehabilitation services, these 
procedures are summarized below. 

Any public or private agency or any individual can refer a potentially disabled person 
to vocational rehabilitation through letter, telephone or personal contact by providing the 
individual's name, address, date of birth and nature of disability. This basic information 
then constitutes a referral for services. A person with a disability may also refer himself. As 
soon as a signed application has been secured by the rehabilitation agency, the agency will 


secure m the case of a blind or visually handicapped person a general physical examination 
report and an eye examination report (specialty examination). If either of these 
examination reports indicates the need for further specialty examinations, these will also be 
secured as a part of developing a complete picture of the individual's disability and general 
health. When the medical data has been appraised by the medical consultant and the 
rehabilitation staff, the agency is then in a position to detennine the individual's eligibility 
for rehabihtation services. 

In order to be eligible for rehabihtation services, three basic conditions must be met by 
a person who is blind or visually impaired: (1) there must be a qualifying visual impairment; 
(2) the visual impaii-ment must constitute a vocational handicap; and (3) there should be a 
reasonable expectation that vocational rehabilitation services will render the individual fit to 
engage in a gainful occupation. If the rehabihtation agency cannot determine that the third 
criterion of eligibility has been met at the time, the individual may be accepted for a period 
of extended evaluation to determine his rehabihtation potential. In the case of bhnd persons 
the period of extended evaluation may not exceed eighteen months in duration. 

When it has been determined that an apphcant for rehabilitation services has met the 
three basic criteria, the rehabihtation counselor executes a Certificate of Eligibility and the 
individual is then ready for planning toward provision of rehabilitation services. If one or 
more of the basic criterion of eligibility has not been met and if the individual has not been 
accepted for a period of extended evaluation, the case is closed from applicant status and a 
Certificate of Inehgibility is executed which documents the reasons for a detennination of 

When an individual is accepted for vocational rehabilitation services, it is the joint 
responsibility of the individual and the rehabilitation counselor to develop an individual 
rehabilitation plan which outlines the vocational objective, the ser\'ices needed to achieve 
that objective, and the sources of these services. When the plan has been developed by the 
counselor and the eligible disabled person it is then submitted to the counselor's supervisor 
for approval. The plan outhnes the services needed, the cost of the services and the period of 
tiine in which they will be provided. If and when it becomes necessary to revise an 
individual rehabilitation plan, it is the joint responsibility of the counselor and the 
individual with the disability to develop such a revision. 

When the services outhned in the individual rehabDitation plan have been provided, the 
disabled individual should be ready for employment, and it is the responsibihty of the 
agency to assist in every way possible in securing employment commensurate with the 
individual's talents and desires. In helping to place a disabled individual the rehabihtation 
counselor may utOize the services of the State Employment Service, but he has a primary 
responsibility for placement under the Federal Vocational Rehabihtation Act. This 
responsibility cannot be delegated to any other agency. 

When a bhnd or visually handicapped individual has been adequately trained and 
assisted to secure satisfactory employment, the case is closed as "rehab iUtated." If it is 


determihed that the individual cannot be lehabihtated, the case may be closed "not 

5 The Vocational Rehabilitation Program in Operation 

Hawau's total average per capita expenditure for vocational rehabihtation during fiscal 
year 1968 (July K 1967-June 30, 1968) was $2 02 of which $1.51 was provided from 
Federal funds and $.52 was provided from State funds. During the same fiscal year the total 
Federal expenditures for vocational rehabilitation services in Hawaii under Section 2 of the 
Act. the Basic Support Program, came to Sl,l 1 LSOl. To match this amount for the basic 
support program, Hawaii provided in State funds $381,519. Total expenditures in the State 
for vocational rehabilitation services were $1,493,320. In addition, Hawaii received 
approximately Si 5.000 from the Social Security Disability Trust Fund Program for the 
rehabihtation of selected disability beneficiaries. 

Although precise comparable data are not yet available for fiscal year 1969. it is 
estimated that Hawaii received $1,520,345 in Federal funds for the basic support program 
and that this required State matching funds in the amount of $506,782. The sum of these 
figures $2,027,127, should have been available to the State for provision of vocational 
rehabilitiation services to eligible disabled people. In addition it is estimated that Hawaih 
received approximately $32,000 from the Social Security Disabihty Trust Fund Program for 
the rehabilitation of selected disability beneficiaries. During the current year, fiscal year 
1970, Hawaii should have for the provision of vocational rehabilitation services 
approximately $2,282,000, 

NOTE : The departments proposed a budget of $2,432,552 for the basic support 
program during the current year, but some reduction in available Federal funds is 
anticipated at this time In addition, Hawaii will receive approximately $52,000 from the 
Social Security Disability Trust Fund Program for the rehabilitation of selected disabihty 
beneficiaries. Effective July 1, 1969, Federal financial participation in the basic support 
program increased from 75 percent to 80 percent within the limits of the Federal 
appropriation, and the maintenance-of-effort stipulation in the Act requires that a state may 
not reduce its effort without penalty. 

Duiing fiscal year 1968, the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation and Services for the 
Blmd had in its caseload a total of 1714 individuals who applied for services, of whom 160 
were blind or visually impaired. Of these, 1138 were officially accepted for vocational 
rehabilitation services, including 104 who were blind or visually impaired. A total of 190 
apphcants for services were not accepted for various reasons of whom 19 were bhnd or 
visually impaired 

During the same year, the Division's caseload of persons officially accepted for 
rehabihtation services totaled 2754, of whom 250 were bhnd or visually impaired; 
-■■ehabilitated a total of 565 perons, of whom 42 were blind or visuahy iinpaired; and closed 


the cases of 318 persons not rehabilitated for various reasons, of whom 21 were blind or 
visually impaired. 

During fiscal year 1969 the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation and Services for the 
Blind had in its caseload alotal of 2114 individuals who appHed for services of whom 191 
were blind or visually impaired. Of these 1175 wore officially accepted for vocational 
rehabilitation services including 112 who v/ere bhnd or visually impaired. A total of 257 
applicants for services were not accepted for various reasons of whom 22 were blind or 
visually impaired. 

During 1969 the Division's caseload of persons officially accepted for rehabihtation 
services totaled 3 103, of whom 299 were blind or visually impaired; rehabilitated a total of 
644 persons of v/hom 37 were bhnd or visually impaired; and closed the cases of 350 
persons not rehabilitated for various reasons of whom 15 were blind or visually impaired. 

In the preparation of this report, the Survey Team has not attempted to evaluate 
Hawaii's entire vocational rehabilitation program. Rather, its efforts have been confined to 
those aspects of the program which either directly or indirectly have a bearing on the State's 
success in rehabilitating its blind citizens. In addition to reviewing the Statutes, the State 
Plan and related policy and procedure materials, and talking with members of the staff, 
members of the Sun'ey Team visited the facilities at Ho'opono and studied a series of 
recommendations submitted by other persons who have appraised Hawaii's services to the 
bhnd. The Sui-ve> Team also conducted an intensive review of 140 cases of blind and 
visually handicapped persons selected from the Division's caseload. Thirty-seven case records 
of persons closed rehabilitated m fiscal year 1969 were studied and data compiled 
concerning them. Fifteen cases of persons who had been accepted for services but were 
closed not rehabilitated were also reviewed. Finally, the Survey Team reviewed the case 
records of 88 other individuals who had formally applied for rehabilitation services or who 
had been refened for rehabilitation services, Dut who were not accepted for sei-vices. 

Using the customarily accepted ophthalmic definition of legal bhndness (central visual 
acuity in the better eye with best correction, 20/200 or less, or a hmitation in the field of 
vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angular distance no 
greater than 20 degices), the cases were classified as "blind" and "not blind." Of the 37 
cases closed rehabilitated in fiscal year 1969, 18 were bhnd and 19 were not blind. The 
occupations at the time of closure for the bhnd were as follows: five vending stand 
operators; three homemakers; and one each: vending stand clerk, truck mechanic helper, 
faculty member (university), piano technician, employment interviewer, sheltered workshop 
operator, groundskeeper (helper), chair spring assembler, x-ray developing machine 
operator, ;md cook. For the not blind there were: one each; unpaid family worker, cement 
mason, manager technical senice, groundskeeper. laborer (stores), farm hand (fruit), tree 
planter, accounting clerk, utility man. office machines serviceman, housekeeper (houseman), 
homemaker, utihty worker, pest control man, charwoman, automotive mechanic, surveyor 
assistant (rodman), counselor, and painter (artist) scenic. 


At the time of closure the blind lehabilitants had weekly earnings as follows; no 
earnings, 3; less than $25, 2; S26 to $50, 2; $51 to $75, 4; $76 to $100, 3; $101 to $150, 2; 
$151 to $200, 2; and for the not blind earnings were: no earnings 2; less than $25, 1; $26 to 
$50. 1;$51 to $75, 4; $76 to $100, 6; SlOl to $150, 5; and $151 to $200, none. 

Of the 18 blind rehabiUtants, 9 were female and 9 were male, while of the 19 who were 
not bhnd, 3 were female and 16 were male. 

At the time they were accepted for rehabilitation services, 12 of the 18 blind 
rehabihtants had no earnings while 13 of the 19 not blind had no earnings. For the primary 
source of support at the time of acceptance for the blind: 1 1, family and friends; 3, cunent 
earnings; and one each public assistance; social security disability benefits; public insurance, 
survivors or retirement benefits; and private insurance or retirement; while for the not blind: 
5, family and friends; 4, current earnings; 3. workemen's compensation; 3, pubhc insurance, 
survivors or retirement benefits; 2, public assistance; and one each general assistance and 
social security disability insurance benefits. 

For years of school completed at the time of acceptance for services, 5 of the bhnd and 
4 of the not blind had completed eight years of school or less; more than eight years but less 
than 13 years of schooling, bhnd, 9, not blind, 1 1; thirteen or more years of schooling, bhnd 
4 and not bhnd 4. 

The age at time of acceptance for services was: under 20 years: blind, 3, not blind, 3; 
21-35 years, bhnd, 2, not blind 7; 36-50 years, blind, 7, not blind, 4; 51-65 years, bhnd, 5, 
not blind, 3; over 65 years, bhnd, none, not blind, 1. 

For source of referral to the vocational rehabihtation agency, 6 of the bhnd and 7 of 
the not blind were self-referred and the remainder in each group was referred by various 
sources. The bhnd had somewhat fewer dependents than the not bhnd. 

Of the fifteen persons who had been accepted for vocational rehabihtation services but 
whose cases were closed "not rehabihtated," 8 were blind and 7 were not blind, and of the 
88 persons whose cases were closed prior to acceptance for services, 34 were blind and 54 
were not blind. 

The Services for the Blind Branch of the Division of Vocational Rehabihtation is 
headed by the Branch Administrator and divided into four functional units: sight 
conservation and low vision clinic, personal adjustment, counsehng, and employment. 
Although there is functional overlapping among the four units each will be discussed 
separately in the following paragraphs. The Branch employs five persons in clerical and 
stenographic positions and 19 persons in supervisory and other professional capacities, 
including the Branch Administrator. Three additional counselors working in the Divisions" 
District offices on Hawaii, Maui and Kauai also have part time responsibihty in working with 
blind and visually handicapped persons. 


The sight consen'ation and low vision chnic services are under the overall direction of a 
sight conservation specialist who is assisted on a part time basis by an ophthalmologist and 
an optometrist. Sight conservation services constitute an important element in an agency's 
program to provide to the general public and blind or partially blind individuals a reaUstic 
concept of blindness or visual impairment. In the conduct of sight conservation activities it 
is essential that a positive attitude toward blindness is manifested rather than stress being 
placed on the tragedy of loss of sight. The sight conservation program can be helpful in the 
development of visual screening programs for school children to detect visual impairments, 
but it must be conducted in such a way as to avoid instilling fear m those who are blind or 
who are losing their sight. 

The low vision clinic provides a needed sen'ice to a small number of individuals with 
visual impairments but who are not totally blind. In prescribing vision aids it is important 
that these, like any other prosthetic device, be evaluated in terms of their contributions to 
vocational success rather than merely upon an improvement of visual acuity in a relatively 
strict sense. In other words, prescription of low vision aids should be considered in the light 
of their contributions to the individual's increased functional use of eyesight in performing 
the tasks which are important to him. Accordingly, a low vision aids program needs the 
assistance not only of an ophthalmologist and an optometrist, but also of an individual with 
a strong vocational orientation and direct job-market experience. This latter element is not 
present to a sufficient degree in Hawaii's low \asion clinic, and the sight conservation 
program can also benefit substantially through development of a more realistic concept of 
what persons who are blind can do successfully and efficiently without sight or with very 
limited sight. 

The adjustment section located at Ho'opono is under the direction of one supervisor 
and has the following staff members: two orientation/mobility teachers; one group social 
worker; one manual arts teacher, one occupational therapist; one rehabilitation teacher 
(home economics). The adjustment section has relatively adequate classroom facihties at 
Ho'opono but no dormitory facilities are available on the premises. In its totality this 
section provides instruction in mobility skills, manual arts, home economics, braille and 
typing, and arts and crafts. 

In philosophy and function, this section requires substantial upgrading if it is to meet 
the real needs of Hawaii's blind citizens. The designation "manual arts instructor" is 
indicative of a traditional concept of the nature of blindness and of what blind persons can 
do. A more reahstic title would be "industrial arts teacher," if this title were truly 
implemented by practice. Successful and safe operation of power-driven machines of the 
type used in business and industiy present no real problem for training bhnd persons. 
Instruction in these activities serves an important role in helping the blind individual to 
assess his capacities and understand that blindness is not the limiting, restricting condition 
he thought it to be. 

Siinilar comments are appropriate for other aspects of the adjustment section program . 
It tends strongly to mirror the traditional concepts and limitations of bhndness rather than 


uproot them. It tends to foster acceptance of limitations which need not exist and would 
not exist if the program were more foward-lookin^ . 

The entire adjustment section program is geared to a slow pace of activities. Scheduling 
of students is often on an occasional or part-time basis which fails to take advantage of the 
opportunities to conduct some of the activities on a group basis. Experience in other 
adjustment and orientation center programs demonstrates that a staff the size of that 
provided by Hawah should be more productive in meeting the real needs of bhnd citizens 
for intensive specialized training in a myriad of skills and techniques utilized by blind 
persons to do without sight or with very little sight the things for which normal eyesight is 
used by those who possess it. 

The counseling section is headed by a supervisor and is staffed by two social workers, 
two rehabilitation counselors and one rehabiUtation teacher (home teacher). In addition, 
three other counselors working out of district offices on Hawaii, Maui and Kauai spend a 
portion of their time working with bhnd or visually handicapped clients. At the time the 
Survey Team was in Hawaii, one of the two counseling positions was vacant. Through 
interviews with branch staff and especially through the case review process, the Sui-vey 
Team became aware of a strong social services flavor in this unit and throughout the branch. 
It is worthy of note that this section has as many social workers as rehabilitation counselors 
and that the initial case contact and interviewing is conducted by social workers rather than 
rehabilitation counselors. To provide iinmediate vocational rehabiUtation services to blind 
and visually impaired persons who need them requires prompt action on the part of the 
agency. In most instances the individual is unemployed and his economic circumstances are 
severe. He has an immediate need for positive, aggressive action toward re-entry into the 
labor force. 

In its review of case records, for example, the Survey Team found instances in which 
applicants for rehabiUtation services hoped to secure training and job placement but were 
compelled to undergo social casework counseUng and an exploration of their family 
relationships. One individual who applied for services and requested piano lessons to 
upgrade his music skills and assistance in job placement was denied help because, so the case 
record reported, he refused to accept other agency services. In the case of married clients of 
the agency, it is customary for the agency interviewer to secure educational and work 
history data on the spouse in much the same way that it is acquired for the client. From the 
case records reviewed, it is the usual practice that rehabiUtation clients must undergo a 
social casework evaluation before they can be referred to a rehabilitation counselor. 

The review of case records also made the Survey Team aware of other practices which 
are not in common use in the more effective rehabiUtation agencies serving bUnd persons. 
Most cUents are expected to come to Ho'opono for interviews and counseling as well as 
other services. If the cUent does not come to the office it is customary that he receive a 
telephone call or that a letter be mailed to him suggesting that he do so if he desires services. 
Since some persons are not accessible by telephone, and since some blind persons are not 
able to read their mail or get someone to read it for them, failure to respond to such an 


inquiry should result in an agency contact with the person at his place of residence. 

When it has been determined by the rehabilitation counselor that a rehabilitation client 
is ready for employment, he is referred to the State Employment Service for placement. A 
review of case records indicates very httle counselor effort toward direct job placement. 
Because of a lack of employer understanding regarding the jobs which competent blind 
persons can perforfn successfully and" competitively, and because placement personnel in the 
State Employment Service in Hawaii lack sufficiently speciahzed background in work with 
blind persons, there is a strong need for sustained aggressive job placement activities. It is 
frequently helpful to register the blind person who is ready for employment with the State 
Employment Service, but the vocational rehabilitation agency has a primary responsibility 
for job placement, and it cannot delegate this responsibility to any other agency. 

In the instance of one individual whose case record was reviewed by the Survey Team, 
the rehabilitation counselor offered the blind chent assignment to a vending stand which 
paid less than $75.00 per month. When the bUnd person declined to accept this assignment 
the case was closed with a notation that services had been refused. In an effective vocational 
rehabilitation program there should be intensive exploration of other job interests for 
employment opportunities, and the counselor should be at least as aware as the client of the 
fact that $75.00 per month or less is far below any minimum standard of living-indeed, well 
below the poverty level. 

For vocational training of blind and visually handicapped clients, the case record 
review disclosed a primary rehance upon the University of Hawaii and a few special 
programs such as those conducted under the Manpower Training and Development Act. 
Some of these programs are not suited to the needs of many blind persons and others do not 
fulfill the blind individual's vocational aspirations. 

The cmploymenl section is headed by a supervisor, and in addition is staffed by a 
sheltered workshop manager, a sheltered workshop foreman, and a home industry 
supervisoi. The employment section includes two areas of actixity, the sheltered workshop 
operated at Ho'oponO; and the vending stand program operated under the Federal 
Randolph-Sheppard Act as amended. 

The sheltered workshop provides terminal employment to a very small number of bhnd 
or visually impaired persons and to some other persons who have no visual disability. The 
she ltered workshop is too small to be even relatively efficient; most of its equipment is 
obsole te, and most of its products are obsolescent. It occupies space at Ho'opono which 
could be used more productively for other purposes . The branch administrator and other 
members of the staff seem to be aware of most of the problems inherent in continuing to 
operate the sheltered workshop, and the Sur\'ey Team was advised that plans are under way 
to phase it out. In that fortunate event, however, plans must be made to re-train those bUnd 
persons now working in the shop for better jobs preferably in the competitive labor market. 
Since employees in the sheltered shop are not subject to the wage and hour provisions of the 
Federal Fair Labor Standards Act, their pay is relatively low, and re-training and job 


placement more conducive to eainint; a livelihood sliouid be well witliin the realm of 

At the time the Survey Team was in Hawaii, a very limited home industries program 
was being operated in conjunction with the sheltered workshop. Some of the products 
under exploration for home production were being produced in the sheltered workshop 
both as a means of employment and for puiposes of exploration. For those blind persons 
who have one or more additional disabihties, home industries or sheltered employment can 
afford an opportunity for income, but that income will remain largely supplemental in 

The supervisor of the employment section is concerned in the performance of his 
duties primarily with the vending stand and small business enterprise program. He is 
responsible for training new operators and inservice training of current operators of vending 
stands as well as upgrading existing vending stands and development of new vending stand 
locations, day-to-day supervision of the program and equipment maintenance. 

6. The Vending Stajid Program 

For fiscal year 1969 (July 1, 1968-June 30, 1969), the Division of Vocational 
Rehabilitation reported to the Federal Government (Rehabilitation Services Administration 
report form VR:B-1) gross sales of S 1,02 1,187 and a total of 30 vending stands in operation 
at the close of the year located as follows: on Federal property, 5: other public property. 
22; private property, 3. The Division also reported net earnings during the year for all stands 
totahng $147,167, 

In a review of the vending stand program during the year, total earnings were tabulated 
from agency records of receipts and disbursements as follows: less than $1000 per year, 4 
vending stands; more than $1000 but less than S2000 per year, 6; $2000-$3000, 1; 
$3000-$4000, 6; $4000-$5000. 3; $6000-$7000. 4; more than $7000 per year, 3. In its 
Federal report on the vending stand program, the Division included data on one large 
vending operation which is not directly a part of its program. The inclusion of that data 
i nflated gross sales and net earnings tremendouslv-in fact, thev were more than doubled. In 
fiscal year 1969, 6 or more than 33 percent of the 18 bhnd persons closed rehabilitated 
found employment in the vending stand program for the blind, but it is apparent from the 
net annual earnings of many of the vending stands that the program requires substantial 

Only one of the vending stands sells hot and cold beverages manually prepared on the 
premises and only one sells foods prepared on the premises. At many other locations, 
vending machines dispensing hot and cold beverages as well as foods have been placed by 
private concessionaires who pay a small commission to the blind vending stand operator. 
When the vending stand supervisor finds it desirable to negotiate for placement of vending 
machines by concessionaires in a vending stand, current practices provide that he secure 


proposals from two or more concessionaires and submit them for review and approval to the 
Director of Social Services. This procedure results in substantial delays in providing the 
needed scnice. and deprives the vending stand supervisor of the flexibility required to 
develop a program which is concerned not only with, the amount of comm.ission paid to the 
blind vending stand operatotr but with the quality of equipment and the quality of services. 
Aside from a general upgrading of the vending stand program, two specific avenues are open 
which would provide a substantial increase in earnings. First, manually prepared and served 
hot and cold beverages are veiy appeahng to customers, are easily handled, are often more 
appetizing and yield a greater return. Second, where it is not possible or practical to prepare 
and serve beverages manually, the agency should consider purchasing vending machines and 
training the blind vending stand managers in their use and function. Both approaches are 
being pursued aggressively by other states in their vending stand programs, and the results 
have been veiy satisfying. One very compelling need of the vending stand program is for 
increased funds with which to buy equipment to improve existing stands and to establish 
new ones. The program should move aggressively into food preparation and sei-vice; and the 
vending stand personnel will need training compatible with the increased scope of 
responsibiUty. In its policies and procedures document, and in correspondence, the Division 
often describes the vending stand program as a government-subsidized enterprise. 

The Ho'opono facility has been equipped with a small vending stand which is used for 
training purposes, although its volume of sales and variety of merchandise is not sufficient 
to provide a really meaningful experience. Ho'opono also has been equipped with a 
cafeteria, but operation of this cafeteria has been assigned to Lanakila Crafts, located 
adjacent to Ho'opono: and students and staff at Ho'opono as well as Lanakila personnel 
patronize the cafeteria. The incongruity of this arrangement, with its implication of 
incompetence of the blind in such operations, is obvious and astonishing . 

If the vending stand program is to be expanded by the development of more and better 
vending stand locations, by inclusion of manually prepared and served foods and beverages 
and by improved operator competency and effectiveness, it will require more staff time than 
currencly committed to it. Finally, among agency personnel there exists confusion regarding 
the vending stand program and means of making it effective. For example, counselors on the 
other islands who are in more direct contact with the vending stands located there arc often 
not aware of the fact that Federal financial participation is available for the purchase of new 
equipment based on the needs of the vending stand itself, but rather they believe that a 
re-determination of eUgibiUty of the operator is required as a prerequisite to furnishing 
needed equipment. This tends to result in attempting to rehabilitate a vending stand 
operator over and over as means of providing equipment needed by the vending stand. 

7. Conclusions and Recommendations 

The Survey Team commends the citizens of Hawaii who. acting througli the State 
government, have made substantial efforts to meet the vocational rehabihtation and other 


employment needs of the State's blind citizens. These efforts are manifested in the amount 
of nione\ appropriated for rehabilitation purposes, the acquisition of land and 
establishment of the Ho'opono facility, the number of staff positions established to serve 
blind persons, the enactment of legislation establishing vending stand opportimities for the 
blind in public buildings, and a vai-iety of other legislative provisions designed to improve 
and expand opportunities foi blind citizens. With an annual budget of approximately 
5500,000, the Services for the Blind Branch does in a peripheral way touch tlie lives of 
approximately 700 blind persons each year. The Branch is providing social services and 
recreational ser\'ices, and is engaging in many other activities which, although they may be 
helpful, do not meet the basic needs of Hawaii's blind citizens for adequate and immediate 
intensive and specialized counseling, training and job placement. The training opportunities 
provided lack variety, depth and specialization. The job placement efforts are inadequate 
because they lack positive purpose, coupled, as it should be, with special skills and 
knowledge of the occupations and professions in which thousands of blind persons are 
already working successfully throughout the nation. 

Finally, there exists a need to develop an improved working re!ation.ship with Hawaii's 
Civil Service System to provide for better and more equal testing, certification and 
placement of blind persons in the public service including placement in Hawaii's Services for 
the Blind Program. Hawaii's Seivices for the Blind Branch, which has responsibility for the 
vocational rehabilitation of blind persons including their job placement, itself employs no 
blind persons on its staff. When this matter was discussed with division staff, the Sui-vey 
Team was advised that there were no blind persons quahfied for these jobs in Hawaii. On the 
face of it, that is a highly dubious assertion; however, even if it were true it would serve only 
to point up the inadequacy of vocational training and educational efforts which fail to 
prepare blind persons for such obvious and available occupations. 

The staff of the Services for the Blind Branch of the Division of Vocational 
Rehabilitation is made up of many persons who are academically well qualified and possess 
a basic commitment to the provision of meaningful rehabilitation services. However, housed 
administratively as it is in a social services environment, substantially oriented 
philosophically to prevention of blindness and amehoration of the condition of those 
persons whose blindness cannot be prevented-and substantially lacking a forward-looking 
realistic attitude toward blindness itself-the efforts of the staff have metonly with partial 
success. It is unrealistic to expect a staff to '"sell its products." in this case capable 
well-trained blind persons, to other employers when the agency itself will not buy these 
products for its own staff. What Hawaii needs in its services for the bhnd program is not 
more of the same old thing, but instead a new sense of purpose and a new acceptance of the 
fact that the average bhnd person who has reasonable expertise in the special skihs, methods 
and attitudes appropriate to bhndness, along with adequate vocational training and 
opportunity for competitive employment, can perform well in a very wide variety of 
occupations and professions. There is no real shortage of jobs which blind persons can 
perform competitively, but vocational competence by itself will result only in frustration 
and failure unless there is an aggresive program to acquaint prospective employers with the 
facts and persuade them to give a blind employee a chance to fail or succeed on his 


individual merits. 

The real test of social thought and public planning for a state's blind citizens is whether 
it meets or defers meeting their basic needs; whether it presupposes the normality and 
equality of persons who are^ blind, or presumes their abnormality and inferiority; whether it 
recognizes both their right and competence to govern their own hves, or seeks to impose a 
protective custody and perpetuate a dependent status; whether it creates opportunity and 
encourages access to nonnal competitive pursuits, or erects artificial handicaps and arbitrary 
barriers; and finally, whether it provides public service as the right due to citizens or as the 
charity bounty due to wards and indigents. 

For the purpose of assisting the State of Hawaii in the establishment of an excellent 
rehabilitation program for the blind, and in recognition of the substantial efforts already 
being made by the State, the Survey Team makes the following specific recommendations: 

















With these changes and corrections to existing practices, it is believed that Hawaii's 
programs for vocational rehabilitation, orientation and opportunity for its blind citizens will 
take their place in the forefront of modern public programming in this area of primary 
importance to the welfare and well-being of the visually handicapped.